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Full text of "Tract number ninety : remarks on certain passages in the Thirty-nine Articles"

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TRACT 



I^UMBER ISril^ETT. 



REMARKS ON CERTAIN PASSAGES 



THIRTY-KINE ARTICLES. 



JOHN HENRY NEWMAN, D.D. 




NEW YORK: 
H. B. DURAND, 49 WHITE STREET. 

M DCCC LZV. 



fThe corrections in the Second Edition are put in brackets.] 



AMERICAN EEPEINTI 
rSOH THE SECOND ENQUSH EDITION. 



CONTENTS, 



after 



iNTEODUCnON 

§ 1. Articles VI. and XX. — Holy Scripture, and tho 

Authority of the Church 
§ 2. Article XI. — Justilication by Faith only 
§ 3. Articles XII. and XIII. — Works before and 

Justification .... 

§ 4. Article XIX.— The Visible Church 
§ 5. Article XXI. — General Councils 
§ 6. Article XXI F. — Purgatory, Pardons, Images, 

ics, Invocation of Saints 
§ 7. Article XXV. — The Sacraments . 
§ 8. Article XXVIII. — Transubstantiation . 
§ 9. Article XXXI. — Masses 
§ 10. Article XXXII. — Marriage of Clergy . 
§ 11. Article XXXV.— The Homilies . 
§ 12. Article XXXVII.— The Bishop of Rome 
Conclusion 



, Rel 



PACK 

5 

10 
21 

25 
30 
36 

39 

71 

77 

96 

104 

107 

124 

129 



INTKODUCTIOJSr. 



It is often urged, and sometimes felt and grant- 
ed, that there are in the Articles propositions or 
terms inconsistent with the Catholic faith ; or, at 
least, when persons do not go so far as to feel the 
objection as of force, they are perplexed how best 
to reply to it, or how most simply to explain the 
passages on which it is made to rest. The follow- 
ing Tract is drawn np with the view of showing 
how groundless the objection is, and further of 
approximating towards the argumentative answer 
to it, of which most men have an implicit appre- 
hension, though they may have nothing more. 
That there are real difficulties to a Catholic Chris- 
tian in the ecclesiastical position of our Church at 
this day, no one can deny ; but the statements of 
the Articles are not in the number ; and it may 
be right at the present moment to insist upon this. 
If in any quarter it is supposed that persons who 
profess to be disciples of the early Church will 
silently concur with those of very opposite senti- 
ments in furthering a relaxation of subscriptions, 



6 INTKODUCTIOX. 

which, it is imagined, are galling to botli parties, 
though for different reasons, and that they will do 
this against the wish of the great body of the 
Church, the writer of the following pages would 
raise one voice, at least, in protest against any 
such anticipation. Even in such points as he may 
think the English Church deficient, never can he, 
without a great alteration of sentiment, be party 
to forcing the opinion or project of one school 
upon another. Religious changes, to be beneficial, 
should be the act of the whole body ; they are 
worth little if they are the mere act of a major- 
ity,* jS^o good can come of any change which is 
not heart-felt, a development of feelings springing 
up freely and calmly within the bosom of the 
whole body itself. Moreover, a change in theo- 
logical teaching involves either the commission or 
the confession of sin ; it is either the profession or 
renunciation of erroneous doctrine, and if it does 
not succeed in proving the fact of past guilt, it, 
ipso facto, implies present. In other words, every 
change in religion carries with it its own con- 
demnation, which is not attended by deep repent- 
ance. Even supposing, then, that any changes in 
contemplation, whatever they were, were good in 



* This is not meant to hinder acts of CathoHc consent such as 
occurred anciently, when the Catholic body aids one portion of a 
particular Cliurch against another portion. 



IlfTRODUCTIOI^. 7 

themselves, they would cease to be good to a 
church, in which they were the fruits not of the 
quiet conviction of all, but of the agitation, or 
tyranny, or intrigue of a few; nurtured not in 
mutual love, but in strife and envying ; perfected 
not in humiliation and grief, but in pride, elation, 
and triumph. Moreover it is a very serious truth 
that persons and bodies who put themselves into 
a disadvantageous state, cannot at their pleasure 
extricate themselves from it. They are unworthy 
of it; they are in prison, and Cheist is the 
keeper. There is but one way towards a real 
reformation, — a return to Him in heart and spirit, 
whose sacred truth they have betrayed ; all other 
methods, however fair they may promise, will 
prove to be but shadows and failures. 

On these grounds, were there no others, the 
present writer, for one, will be no party to the 
ordinary political methods by which professed re- 
forms are carried or compassed in this day. We 
can do nothing well till we act " with one accord ;" 
we can have no accord in action till we agree 
together in heart; we cannot agree without a 
supernatural influence ; we cannot have a super- 
natural influence unless we pray for it ; we cannot 
pray acceptably without repentance and confes- 
sion. Our Church's strength would be irresistible, 
humanly speaking, were it but at unity with itself ; 
if it remains divided, part against part, we shall see 



8 UTTEODUCTION' 

the energy which was meant to subdue the world 
preying upon Itself, according to our Savioue's 
express assurance, that such a house "cannot 
stand." Till we feel this, till we seek one another 
as brethren, not lightly throwing aside our pri- 
vate opinions, which we seem to feel we have 
received from above, from an ill-regulated, untrue 
desire of unity, but returning to each other in 
heart, and coming together to God to do for us 
what we cannot do for ourselves, no change can 
be for the better. Till [we] are stirred up to this 
religious course, let the Church [our Mother] sit 
still ; let [her children] be content to be in bond- 
age ; let [us] submit to [our] imperfections as a 
punishment ; let [us] go on teaching [through 
the medium of indeterminate statements], and 
inconsistent precedents, and principles but par- 
tially developed. "We are not better than our 
fathers ; let us bear to be what Hammond was, or 
Andrews, or Hooker ; let us not faint under that 
body of death, which they bore about in patience ; 
nor shrink from the penalty of sins, which they 
inherited from the age before them.* 

But these remarks are beyond our present scope, 

* " We, thy sinful creatures," says the Service for King Charles 
the Martyr, " here assembled before Thee, do, in behalf of all 
the people of this land, humbly confess, that they were the cry- 
ing sins of this nation, which brought down this judgment upon 
us," L e., King Charles's murder. 



DTTRODUCTION. 

which is merely to show that, while our Prayer 
Book is acknowledged on all hands to be of Cath- 
olic origin, our Articles also, the oflfspring of an 
uncatholic age, are, through God's good provi- 
dence, to say the least, not uncatholic, and may 
be subscribed by those who aim at being catholic 
in heart and doctrine. In entering upon the pro- 
posed examination, it is only necessary to add, 
that in several places the writer has found it con- 
venient to express himself in language recently 
used, which he is willing altogether to make his 
own. He has distinguished the passages intro- 
duced by quotation marks. 
1* 



10 HOLT 8CEIPTUEE, ETC. 



§ 1. — Holy Scripture and tJie Authority of the 
Church. 

Articles VI. and XX. — " Holy Scripture con- 
taineth all things necessary to salvation ; so that 
whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved 
thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it 
should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be 
thought requisite or necessary to salvation. . . . 
The Church hath [power to decree (statuendi) 
rites and ceremonies, and] authority in contro- 
versies of faith ; and yet it is not lawful for the 
Church to [ordain (instituere) any thing that is 
contrary to God's word written, neither may it] 
Bo expound one place of Scripture, that it be 
repugnant to another. "Wherefore, although the 
Church be a witness and a keeper of Holy Writ, 
yet [as it ought not to decree (decernere) any thing 
against the same, so] besides the same, ought it 
not to enforce (obtrudere) any thing to be be- 
lieved for necessity of salvation,"* 

* The passages in brackets (all) relate to rites and ceremonies 
which are not here in question. [From brackets marking the 
Second Edition, must bo excepted those which occur in quota- 
tUms.] 



HOLY SCEIPTURE, ETC. 11 

Two instruments of Christian teacliing are 
spoken of in these Articles, Holy Scripture and 
the Church. 

Here then we have to inquire, first, what is 
meant by Holy Scripture ; next, what is meant by 
the Church; and then, what their respective 
offices are in teaching revealed truth, and how 
these are adjusted with one another in their actual 
exercise. 

1. JSTow, what the Church is, will be considered 
below in Section 4. 

2. And the Books of Holy Scripture are enu- 
merated in the latter part of the Article, so as to 
preclude question. Still two points deserve no- 
tice here. 

First, the Scriptures or Canonical Books are 
said to be those " of whose authority was never 
any doubt in the Church." Here it is not meant 
that there never was any doubt in portions of 
the Church or j^c^^'t^^ular Churches concerning 
certain books, which the Article includes in the 
Canon ; for some of them — as, for instance, the 
Epistle to the Hebrews and the Apocalypse — have 
been the subject of much doubt in the West or 
East, as the case may be. But the Article asserts 
that there has been no doubt about them in the 
Church Catholic ; that is, at the very first time 
that the Catholic or whole Church had the oppor- 
tunity of forming a judgment on the subject, it 



12 HOLY SOEIPTURE, ETC. 

pronounced in favor of the Canonical Booka. The 
Epistle to the Hebrews was doubted by the "West, 
and the Apocalypse by the East, only while those 
portions of the Church investigated separately 
from each other, only till they compared notes, 
interchanged sentiments, and formed a united 
judgment. The phrase must mean this, because, 
from the nature of the case, it can mean nothing 
else. 

And next, be it observed, that the books which 
are commonly called Apocrypha, are not asserted 
in this Article to be destitute of inspiration or to 
be simply human, but to be not canonical; in 
other words, to differ from Canonical Scripture,- 
specially in this respect, viz., that they are not 
adducible in proof of doctrine. " The other books 
(as Hierome saith) the Church doth read for ex- 
ample of life and instruction of manners, but yet 
doth not apply them to establish any doctrine." 
That this is the hmit to which our disparagement 
of them extends, is plain, not only because the 
Article mentions nothing beyond it, but also from 
the reverential manner in which the Homilies 
speak of them, as shall be incidentally shown in 
Section 11. [The compatibility of such reverence 
with such disparagement is also shown from the 
feeling towards them of St. Jerome, who is quoted 
in the Article, who implies more or less their 
inferiority to Canonical Scripture, yet uses them 



HOLY SCEIPTURE, ETC. 18 

freely and continually, as if Scripture. He dis- 
tinctly names many of the books which he con- 
siders not canonical, and virtually names them all, 
by naming what are canonical. For instance, he 
says, speaking of Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, " As 
the Church reads Judith, Tobit, and the Macca- 
bees, without receiving them among the Canonical 
Scriptures, so she reads these two books for the 
edification of the people, not for the confirma- 
tion of the authority of ecclesiastical doctrines." 
{Prcef. in Libr. Salo7n.) Again, " The "Wisdom, 
as it is commonly styled, of Solomon, and the 
book of Jesus son of Sirach, and Judith, and 
Tobias, and the Shepherd, are not in the Canon." 
{Pr(pf. ad lieges.) Such is the language of a 
writer who nevertheless is, to saj^ the least, not 
wanting in reverence towards the book he thus 
disparages.] 

A further question may be asked, concerning 
our received version of the Scriptures, whether it 
is in any sense imposed on us as a true comment 
on the original text ; as the Yulgate is upon the 
Koman Catholics. It would appear not. It was 
made and authorized by royal command, which 
cannot be supposed to have any claim upon our 
interior consent. At the same time every one 
who reads it in the Services of the Church, does, 
of course, thereby imply that he considers that it 
contains no deadly heresy or dangerous mistake. 



14 HOLY SCEIPTUKE, ETC. 

And about its simplicity, majesty, gravity, har- 
mony, and venerableness, there can be but one 
opinion. 

3. JSText we come to the main point, the adjust- 
ment which this Article effects between the respec- 
tive offices of the Scripture and Church; which 
seems to be as follows. 

It is laid down that, 1. Scripture contains all 
necessary articles of the faith ; 2. Either in its 
text, or by inference ; 3. The Church is the keeper 
of Scripture ; 4. And a witness of it ; 5. And has 
authority in controversies of faith ; 6. But may 
not expound one passage of Scripture to contra- 
dict another ; 7. Nor enforce as an article of faith 
any point not contained in Scripture. 

From this it appears, first, that the Church 
expounds and enforces the faith / for it is forbid- 
den to expound in a particular way, or so to 
enforce as to obtrude ; next, that it derives the 
faith wholly from Scripture; thirdly, that its 
office is to educe an harmonious interpretation of 
Scripture, This much the Article settles. 

Two important questions, however, it does not 
settle, viz., whether the Church judges, first, at her 
sole discretion^ next, on her sole responsihility ; i. e., 
first, what the media are by which the Church 
interprets Scripture, whether by a direct divine 
gift, or catholic tradition, or critical exegesis of 
the text, or in any other way ; and next, who is 



HOLY SCKIPTUEE, ETC. 16 

to decide whether it interprets Scripture rightly 
or not ; — what is her method, if any ; and who is 
her judge, if any. In other words, not a word is 
said, on the one hand, in favor of Scripture hav- 
ing no rule or method to fix interpretation by, or, 
as it is commonly expressed, heing the sole rule of 
faith^ nor on the other, of the private judgment 
of the individual being the ultimate standard of 
interpretation. So much has been said lately on 
both these points, and indeed on the whole subject 
of these two Articles, that it is unnecessary to 
enlarge upon them ; but since it is often supposed 
to be almost a first principle of our Church, that 
Scripture is " the rule of faith," it may be well, 
before passing^ on, to make an extract from a 
paper, published some years since, which shows, 
by instances from our divines, that the application 
of the phrase to Scripture is but of recent adop- 
tion. The other question, about the ultimate 
judge of the interpretation of Scripture, shall not 
be entered upon, 

" We may dispense with the phrase * Rule of 
Faith,' as applied to Scripture, on the ground of 
its being ambiguous; and, again, because it is 
then used in a novel sense ; for the ancient Church 
made the Apostolic Tradition, as summed up in 
the Creed, and not the Bible, the Eegula Fidei, 
or Rule. Moreover, its use as a technical phrase, 
Beems to be of late introduction in the Church, 



16 HOLY SCRIPTURE, ETC. 

that is, since the days of King William the Third. 
Our great divines used it without any fixed sense, 
sometimes for Scripture, sometimes for the whole 
and perfectly adjusted Christian doctrine, some- 
times for the Creed; and, at the risk of being 
tedious, we will prove this, by quotations, that the 
point may be put beyond dispute. 

" Ussher, after St. Austin, identifies it with the 
Creed ; — when speaking of the Article of our 
Lord's Descent to Hell, he says — 

" ' It having here likewise been further manifested, what dif- 
ferent opinions have been entertained by the ancient Doctors of 
the Church, concerning the determinate place wherein our Saviour's 
soul did remain during the time of the separation of it from the 
body, I leave it to be considered by the learned, whether any 
such controverted matter may fitly be brought in to expound the 
Rule of Faith, which, being common both to the great and small 
ones of the Church, must contain such varieties only as are gener- 
ally agreed upon by the common consent of all true Christians.' 
— Answer to a Jesuit, p. 362. 

" Taylor speaks to the same purpose : ' Let us 
see with what constancy that and the following 
ages of the Church did adhere to the Apostles^ 
Creed, as the sufiicient and perfect I2ule of fait h.^ 
— Dissuasive, part 2, i. 4, p. 470. Elsewhere he 
calls Scripture the Kule : ' That the Scripture is a 
full and sufiicient Rule to Christians in faith and 
manners, a full and perfect declaration of the Will 
of God, is therefore certain, because we have no 
other.' — Ibid., part 2, i. 2, p. 384. Elsewhere, 



HOLY SCEIPTUEE, ETC. 17 

Scripture and tlie Creed : ' He hath, by His wise 
Providence, preserved the plain places of Scrip- 
ture and the Apostles' Creed, in all Churches, to 
be the RuU and Measure of Faith, by which all 
Churches are saved.' — Ihid., part 2, i. 1, p. 346. 
Elsewhere he identifies it with Scripture, the 
Creeds, and the first four Councils : ' TVe also 
[after Scripture] do believe the Apostles' Creed, 
the Nicene, with the additions of Constantinople, 
and that which is commonly called the Symbol 
of St. Athanasius ; and the four first General 
Councils, are so entirely admitted by us, that they, 
together with the plain words of Scripture, are 
made the Rule and Measure of judging heresies 
among us.' — Fbid., part 1, i. p. 131. 

" Laud calls the Creed, or rather the Creed with 
Scripture, the Rule. ' Since the Fathers make 
the Creed the Rule of Faith ; since the agreeing 
sense of Scripture with those Articles are the Two 
Regular Precepts^ by which a divine is governed 
about his faith,' &c. — Conference with Fisher^ 
p. 42. 

" Bramhall also : ' The Scriptures and the Creed 
are not two difierent Rules of Faith, but one and 
the same RuU, dilated in Scripture, contracted in 
the Creed.'' — Works, p. 402. Stillingfleet says the 
same {Grounds, i. 4. 3.) ; as does Thorndike {De 
Rat. fin. Controv., p. 144, &c.). Elsewhere, Still- 
ingfleet calls Scripture the Rule {Ibid., i. 6. 2.) ; 



18 HOLY SCRIPTURE, ETC. 

as does Jackson (vol. i. p. 226). But ihe most 
complete and decisive statement on the subject is 
contained in Field's work on the Church, from 
which shall follow a long extract. 

" ' It remained to show,' he says, ' what is the Rule of that 
judgment whereby the Church discerneth between truth and 
falsehood, the faith and heresy, and to whom it properly per- 
taineth to interpret those things which, touching this Rule, are 
doubtful. The Rule of our Faith in general, whereby we know 
it to be true, is the infinite excellency of God. ... It being 
presupposed in the generahty that the doctrine of the Christian 
Faith is of God, and containeth nothing but heavenly truth, in 
the next place, we are to inquire by what Rule we are to judge 
of particular things contained within the compass of it. 

" ' This Mule is, 1. The summary comprehension of such princi- 
pal articles of this divine knowledge, as are the principles whence 
all other things are concluded and inferred. These are contained 
in the Creed of the Apostles. 

" ' 2. All such things as every Christian is bound expressly to 
believe, by the light and direction whereof he judgeth of other 
things, which are not absolutely necessary so particularly to be 
known. These are rightly said to be the Rule of our Faith, be- 
cause the principles of every science are the Rule whereby we 
judge of the truth of all things, as being better and more gen- 
erally known than any other thing, and the cause of knowing 
them. 

" ' 3. The analogy, due proportion, and correspondence, that 
one thing in this divine knowledge hath with another, so that 
men cannot err in one of them without erring in another ; nor 
rightly understand one, but they must Ukewise riglitly conceive 
the rest. 

" '4. Whatsoever BooJcs were delivered unto us, as written by 
them, to whom the first and immediate revelation of the divine 
truth was made. 



HOLY SCRIPTURE, ETC. 19 

" ' 5. ■Whatsoever hath been delivered by all the saints with 
one consent, which have left their judgment and opinion in wri- 
ting. 

" ' 6. Whatsoever the most famous have constantly and uni- 
formly delivered, as a matter of faith, no one contradicting, 
though many other ecclesiastical writers be silent, and say noth- 
ing of it 

" ' 7. That which the most, and most famous in every age, con- 
stantly delivered as a matter of faith, and as received of them 
that went before them, in such sort that the contradictors and 
gainsay ers were in their beginnings noted for singularity, nov- 
elty, and division, and afterwards, in process of time, if they per- 
sisted in such contradiction, charged with heresy. 

" * These three latter Rules of our Faith we admit, not because 
they are equal with the former, and originally in themselves con- 
tain the direction of our Faith, but because nothing can be de- 
livered, with such and so full consent of the people of God, as in 
them is expressed ; but it must need be from those first authors 
and founders of our Christian profession. The Romanists add 
unto these the decrees of Councils and determinations of Popes, 
making these also to be the Rules of Faith ; but because we have 
no proof of their infallibility, we number them not with the rest. 

" ' Thus we see how many tilings, in several degrees and sorts, 
are said to be Rules of our Faith. The infinite excellency of 
God, as that whereby the truth of the heavenly doctrine is 
proved. The Articles of Faith, and other verities ever expressly 
known in the Church as the first principles, are the Canon by 
which we judge of conclusions from thence inferred. The Scrip- 
ture, as containing in it all that doctrine of Faith which Christ 
the Son of God delivered. The uniform practice and consenting 
judgment of them that went before us, as a certain and un- 
doubted explication of the things contained in the Scripture. . . . 
So, then, we do not make Scripture the Rule of our Faith, but 
that other things in their kind are Buies likewise; in such sort that 
it is not safe, withovi respect had unto them, to judge (hings by the 
Scripture alone,'' kc. — iv. 14. pp. 364, 365. 



20 HOLY SCRIPTUEE, ETC. 

" These extracts show not only what the Angli- 
can doctrine is, bnt, in particular, that the phrase 
' Eule of Faith' is no symbolical expression with 
us, appropriated to some one sense ; certainly not 
as a definition or attribute of Holy Scripture. 
And it is important to insist upon this, from the 
very great misconceptions to which the phrase 
gives rise. Perhaps its use had better be avoided 
altogether. In the sense in which it is commonly 
understood at this day, Scripture, it is plain, is 
not^ on Anglican. principles, the Rule of Faith." 



JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH ONLY. 21 



§ 2. — Justification hy Faith only, 

Aeticle XL — " That we are justified by Faitli 
only, is a most wholesome doctrine." 

The Homilies add that Faith is the sole means, 
the sole instrument of justification. ISTow, to show 
briefly what such statements imply, and what they 
do not : 

1. They do not imply a denial of Baptism as a 
means and an instrument of justification ; which 
the Homilies elsewhere affirm, as will be shown 
incidentally in a later section. 

" The instrumental power of Faith cannot in- 
terfere with the instrumental power of Baptism ; 
because Faith is the sole justifier, not in contrast 
to all means and agencies whatever (for it is not 
surely in contrast to our Lord's merits, or God's 
mercy), but to all other graces. When, then, 
Faith is called the sole instrument, this means the 
sole internal instrument, not the sole instrmnent 
of any kind. 

" There is nothing inconsistent, then, in Faith 
being the sole instrument of justification, and yet 
Baptism also the sole instrument, and that at the 
same time, because in distinct senses ; an inward 



22 JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH ONLY. 

instrument in no way interfering with an outward 
instrument, Baptism may be the hand of the 
giver, and Faith the hand of the receiver." 

Nor does the sole instrumentality of Faith in- 
terfere with the doctrine of TFor^'s being a mean 
also. And that it is a mean, the Homily of 
Alms-deeds declares in the strongest language, as 
will also be quoted in Section 11. 

"An assent to the doctrine that Faith alone 
justifies, does not at all preclude the doctrine of 
Works justifying also. If, indeed, it were said 
that Works justify in the same sense as Faith only 
justifies, this would be a contradiction in terms ; 
but Faith only may justify in one sense — Good 
Works in another : — and this is all that is here 
maintained. After all, does not Christ only jus- 
tify ? How is it that the doctrine of Faith justi- 
fying does not interfere with our Lokd's being the 
sole Justifier ? It will, of course, be replied, that 
our LoKD is the meritorious cause, and Faith the 
means / that Faith justifies in a different and sub- 
ordinate sense. As, then, Christ justifies in the 
sense in which He justifies alone, yet Faith also 
justifies in its own sense ; so Works, whether 
moral or ritual, may justify us in their own re- 
spective senses, though in the sense in which Faith 
justifies, it only justifies. The only question is, 
What is that sense in wliich Works justify, so as 
not to interfere with Faith only justifying ? It 



JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH ONLY. 23 

may, indeed, turn out on inquiry, that the sense 
alleged wUl not hold, either as being unscrip- 
tural, or for any other reason ; but, whether so or 
not, at any rate the apparent inconsistency of lan- 
guage should not startle persons ; nor should they 
so promptly condemn those who, though they do 
not use ^/«^/;v language, use St. James's. Indeed, 
is not this argument the very weapon of the 
Arians, in their warfare against the Son of God ? 
They said, Chkist is not Got), because the Father 
is called the ' Only God.' " 

2. Xext we have to inquire in what sense Faith 
only does justify. In a number of ways, of which 
here two only shall be mentioned. 

First, it is the pleading or impetrating princi- 
ple, or constitutes our title to justification ; being 
analogous among the graces to Moses lifting up 
his hands on the Mount, or the Israelites eye- 
ing the Brazen Serpent, — actions which did not 
merit God's mercy, but asked for it. A number 
of means go to effect our justification. "We are 
justified by Christ alone, in that He has pur- 
chased the gift ; by Faith alone, in that Faith 
asks for it ; by Baptism alone, for Baptism con- 
veys it ; and by newness of heart alone, for new- 
ness of heart is the life of it. 

And secondly. Faith, as being the beginning of 
perfect or justifying righteousness, is taken for 
what it tends towards, or ultimately will be. It 



24 JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH ONLY. 

is said by anticipation to be that which it prom- 
ises ; just as one might pay a laborer his hire 
before he began his work. Faith working by love 
is the- seed of divine graces, which in due time 
will be brought forth and flourish — partly in this 
world, fully in the next. 



OF WOEKS AND JUSTIFICATION. 25 



§ 3. — Works hefore and after Justification. 

Aeticles XII. and XIII. — " "Works done before 
the grace of Christ and the inspiration of His 
Spirit [' before justification,' title of the Article'}, 
are not pleasant to God (mininie Deo grata sunt) ; 
forasmuch as they spring not of Faith in Jesus 
Christ, neither do they make man meet to re- 
ceive grace, or (as the School authors say) deserve 
grace of congruity (merentur gratiam de congruo) ; 
yea, rather for that they are not done as God hath 
willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt 
not but they have the nature of sin. Albeit good 
works, which are the fruits of faith, and follow 
after justification (justificatos sequuntur), cannot 
put away (expiare) our sins, and endure the se- 
verity of God's judgment, yet are they pleasing 
and acceptable (grata et accepta) to God in 
Christ, and do spring out necessarily of a true 
and lively Faith." 

Two sorts of works are here mentioned — works 
before justification, and works after ; and they 
are most strongly contrasted with each other. 

1. Works before justification, are done " before 
the grace of Christ, and the inspiration of His 
Spibit." 



36 WOKKS BEFORE AND 

2. Works before, "do not spring of Faitli in 
Jesus Chkist ;" works after are " the fruits of 
Faith." 

3. "Works before " have the nature of sin ;" 
works after are " good works." 

4. "Works before " are not pleasant (grata) to 
God ;" works after " are pleasing and acceptable 
(grata et accepta) to God." 

Two propositions, mentioned in these Articles, 
remain, and deserve consideration: First, that 
works hefore justification do not make or dispose 
men to receive grace, or, as the School writers 
say, deserve grace of congruity ; secondly, that 
works after " cannot put away our sins, and en- 
dure the severity of God's judgment." 

1. As to the former statement, — ^to deserve de 
congruo, or of congruity, is to move the Divine 
regard, not from any claim upon it, but from a 
certain fitness or suitableness; as, for instance, 
it might be said that dry wood had a certain dis- 
position or fitness towards heat which green tvood 
had not. ]N"ow, the Article denies that works 
done before the grace of Chkist, or in a mere 
state of nature, in this way dispose towards grace, 
or move God to grant grace. And it asserts, with 
or without reason (for it is a question of historical 
fact^ which need not specially concern us), that 
certain Schoolmen maintained the affirmative. 



AFTER JUSTIFICATION. S7 

Now, that this is what it means, is plain from 
the following passages of the Homilies, which in 
no respect have greater claims upon lis than as 
comments upon the Articles : — 

"Therefore they that teach repentance without a lively faith 
in our Saviour Jesus Christ, do teach none other but Judas's re- 
pentance, as all the Schoolmen do, which do only allow these three 
parts of repentance, — the contrition of the heart, the confession 
of the mouth, and the satisfaction of the work. Bat all thesd 
things we find in Judas's repentance, which, in outward appear- 
ance, did fiir exceed and pass the repentance of Peter. . . , This 
was commonly the penance which Christ enjoined sinners, ' Go 
thy way, and sin no more;' which penance we shall never be able 
to fulfil tcithout a special grace of Ilira that doth say, ' Without 
Me, ye can do nothing.' " — On Repentance, p. 560. 

To take a passage which is still more clear : 

" As these examples are not brought in to the end that we 
should thereby take a boldness to sin, presuming on the mercy 
and goodness of God, but to the end that, if, through the frail- 
ness of our own flesh, and the temptation of the devil, we fall into 
the like sins, we should in no wise despair of the mercy and 
goodness of GoD : even so must we beware and take heed, that 
we do in no wise think in our hearts, imagine, or believe tliat w« 
are able to repent aright, or to turn effectually unto the Lord by our 
own might and strength^ — Ibid., part i. fin. 

The Article contemplates these two states, — one 
of justifying grace, and one of the utter destitution 
of grace ; and it says, that those who are in utter 
destitution cannot do any thing to gain justifica- 
tion ; and, indeed, to assert the contrary would 
be Pelagianism. However, there is an interme- 



td WORKS BEFORE AND 

diate state, of which the Article says nothing, but 
which must not be forgotten, as being an actually 
existing one. Men are not always either in light 
or darkness, but are sometimes between the two ; 
they are sometimes not in a state of Christian 
justification, yet not utterly deserted by God, but 
in a state something like that of Jews or of Hea- 
then, turning to the thought of religion. They 
are not gifted with hahitual grace, but they still 
are visited by divine influences, or by actual grace, 
or rather aid ; and these influences are the first- 
fruits of the grace of justification going before it, 
are intended to lead on to it, and to be perfected 
in it, as twilight leads to day. And since it is a 
Scripture maxim, that "he that is faithful in that 
which is least, is faithful also in much ;" and " to 
whosoever hath, to him shall be given;" there- 
fore, it is quite true that works done with divine 
aid, and in faith, before justification, do dispose 
men to receive the grace of justification ; — such 
were Cornelius's alms, fasting, and prayers, which 
led to his baptism. At the same time it must be 
borne in mind that, even in such cases, it is not 
the works themselves which make them meet, as 
some Schoolmen seem to have said, but the secret 
aid of God, vouchsafed, equally with the "grace 
and Spirit," which is the portion of the baptized, 
for the merits of Christ's sacrifice. 

[But it may be objected, that the silence observed 



AFTEK JUSTIFICATION. UB 

in the Article about a state between that of justi- 
fication and grace, and that of neither, is a proof 
that there is none such. This argument, however, 
would prove too much ; for in like manner there is 
a silence in the Sixth Article about a Judge of the 
scripturalness of doctrine, yet a judge there must 
be. And, again, few, it is supposed, would deny- 
that Cornelius, before the angel came to him, was 
in a more hopeful state, than Simon Magus or 
Felix. The difficulty then, if there be one, is 
common to persons of whatever school of opinion.] 
2. If works hefore justification, when done by 
the influence of divine aid, gain grace, much more 
do works after justification. They are, according 
to the Article, " grata," " pleasing to God ;" and 
they are accepted, " accepta ;" which means that 
God rewards them, and that of course according to 
their degree of excellence. At the same time, as 
works before justification may nevertheless be done 
under a divine infiuence, so works after justifica- 
tion are still liable to the infection of original sin ; 
and, as not being perfect, " cannot expiate our 
sins," or " endure the severity of God's judgment." 



90 THE VISIBLE CHUECH. 



§ 4. — The Visible Church. 

Article XIX. — " The visible Clmreli of Chkist 
is a congregation of faithful men (coetus fidelium), 
in the which the pure Word of God is preached, 
and the Sacraments be duly ministered, accord- 
ing to Christ's ordinance, in all those things that 
of necessity are requisite to the same," 

This is not an abstract definition of « Church, but 
a description of the actually existing One Holy 
CathoHc Church diffused throughout the world ; 
as if it were read, " The Church is a certain soci- 
ety of the faithful," &c. This is evident from the 
mode of describing the Catholic Church familiar to 
all writers from the first ages down to the age of 
this Article. For instance, St. Clement of Alex- 
andria says. " I mean by the Church, not a place, 
but the congregation of the elect.'''' Origen ; " The 
Church, the assembly of all the faithful ^^ St. Am- 
brose: "6>w<2 congregation^ one Church." St. Isi- 
dore : " The Church is a congregation of saints, col- 
lected on a certain faith, and the best conduct of 
life." St. Augustin : "The Church is the people of 
God through all ages." Again : " The Church is the 
multitude which is spread over the whole earth." 



THE VISIBLE CHURCH. m 

St. Cyril : " When we speak of the Church, we de- 
note the most holy multitude of thejpiousr Theo- 
doret: " The Apostle calls the Church the assembly 
of the faithfulP Pope Gregory: "The Church, 
a 'multitude of the faithful collected of both 
sexes." Bede : " The Church is the congregation 
of all saints^'' Alcuin: "The Holy Catholic 
Church, — in Latin, the congregation of the faith- 
fuV Amalarius: "The Church is the peopU 
called together by the Church's ministers." Pope 
Nicolas I. : " The Church, that is, the congrega- 
tion of CatholicsP St. Bernard: "What is the 
Spouse, but the congregation of the just V Peter 
the Yenerable : " The Church is called a congrega- 
tion^ but not of all things, not of cattle, but men^ 
faithful^ good, just. Though bad among these 
good, and just among the unjust, are revealed or 
concealed, yet it is called a Church." Hugo Vic- 
torinus : " The Holy Church, that is, the University 
of the faithful: " Arnulphus : " The Church is 
called thie congregation of thefaithfulP Albertus 
Magnus: "The Greek word Church means in 
Latin convocation ; and whereas works and call- 
ings belong to rational animals, and reason in. 
man is inward faith, therefore it is called the con- 
gregaiion of the faithful^^ Durandus : " The 
Church is in one sense material, in which divers 
offices are celebrated ; in another spiritual, which 
is the collection of the faithful^'' Al varus : " The 



83 THE VISIBLE CHUECH. 

Churcli is the multitude of the faithful, or the 
university of Christians." Pope Pius II. : " The 
Church is the •multitude of the faithful dispersed 
through all nations,"* [And so the Keformers, in 
their own way ; for instance, the Confession of 
Augsburgh : " The one Holy Church will remain 
forever. I^ow the Church of Christ properly is 
the congregation of the members of Christ, that is, 
of saints who truly believe and obey Christ ; though 
with this congregation many bad and hypocrites 
are mixed in this life, till the last judgment." vii. 
— And the Saxon : " We say then that the visible 
Church in this life is an assembly of those who em- 
brace the Gospel of Christ and rightly use the 
Sacraments," &c., xii.] 

These illustrations of the phraseology of the 
Article may be multiplied in any number. And 
they plainly show that it is not laying down any 
logical definition what a Church is, but is descri- 
bing, and, as it were, pointing, to the Catholic 
Church diffused throughout the world ; which, 
being but one, cannot possibly be mistaken, and 
requires no other account of it beyond this single 
and majestic one. The ministration of the Word 
and Sacraments is mentioned as a further note of 
it. As to the question of its limits, whether Epis- 
copal Succession or whether intercommunion v/ith 

* These instances are from Launoy. 



THE VISIBLE CHURCH. 83 

the whole "be necessary to each part of it, — these 
are questions, most important indeed, but of 
detail, and are not expressly treated of in the 
Articles. 

This view is further illustrated by the following 
passage from the Homily for Whitsun-Day : — 

" Our Saviour Christ, departing ont of the world unto His 
Father, promised His Disciples to send down another Comforter, 
that should continue with them forever, and direct them into all 
truth. Which thing to be faithfully and truly performed, the 
Scriptures do sufficiently bear witness. Neilher must we think 
that this Comforter was either promised, or else given, only to 
the Apostles, but also to the universal Church of Christ, dispersed 
through the whole world.- For, unless the Holy Ghost had been 
always present, governing and preserving the Church from the 
beginning, it could never have suffered so many and great brunts 
of affliction and persecution, with so little damage and harm as it 
hath. And the words of Christ are most plain in this behalf, 
saying, that ' the Spirit of Truth should abide with them for- 
ever;' that ' He would be with them always (He meaneth by 
grace, virtue, and power) even to the world's end.' 

"Also in the prayer that He made to His Father a little before 
His death, He maketh intercession, not only for Himself and His 
Apostles, but indifferently for all them that should believe in Him 
tlirough their words, that is, to wit, for His whole Church. 
Again, St. Paul saith, 'If any man have not the Spirit of 
Christ, the same is not His.' Also, in the words following: 
' We have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, 
Father.' Hereby, then, it is evident and plain to all men, that 
the Holy Ghost was given, not only to the Apostles, but also to 
the whole body of Christ's congregation, although not in like form 
and majesty as He came down at the feast of Pentecost. But 
now herein standeth the controversy, — whether all men do justly 
arrogate to themselves the Holy Ghost, or no. The Bishops of 
2* 



Si THE VISIBLE CHURCH. 

Ilome have for a long time made a sore challenge thereto, rea6<»i- 
ing with themselves after this sort : ' The Holy Ghost,' say theyr 
' was promised to the Church, and never forsaketh the Church. 
But we are the chief heads of and the principal part of the Church, 
therefore, we have the Holy Ghost forever: and whatsoever 
things we decree are undoubted verities and oracles of the Holt 
Ghost.' That ye may perceive the weakness of this argument, 
it is needful to teach you, first, what the true Church of Christ 
is, and then to confer the Church of Rome therewith, to discern 
how well they agree together. The true Church is an univer- 
sal congregation or. fellowship of GOD^S faithful an4 elect people, built 
upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ 
Himself being the head corner-stone. And it hath always three 
notes or marks, whereby it is known : pure and soimd doctrine, 
the Sacraments ministered according to Christ's holy institu- 
tion, and the right use of ecclesiastical discipline. This descrip- 
tion of the Church is agreeable both to the Scriptures of God, 
and also to the doctrine of the ancient Fathers, so that none may 
justly find fault therewith. Now, if you will compare this with 
the Church of Rome, not as it was in the beginning, but as it is at 
present, and hath been for the space of nine hundred years and 
odd, you shall well perceive the state thereof to be so fir wide 
from the nature of the Church, that nothing can be more." 



This passage is quoted, not for all it contains, 
but in that respect in which it claims attention, 
viz., as far as it is an illustration of the Article. 
It is speaking of the one Catholic Church, not of 
an abstract idea of a Church which may be mul- 
tiplied indefinitely in fact ; and it uses the same 
terms of it which the Article does of " the visible 
Church." It says that " the true Church is an 
ymvsrsal congregation or fellowship of God's 



THE VISIBLE CHURCH. 35 

faithful and elect people," &c., which as closely 
corresponds to the ccetus fidelium^ or " congrega- 
tion of faithful men" of the Article, as the above 
descriptions from Fathers or Divines do.. There- 
fore, the ccetus fiddimn spoken of in the Article 
is not a definition, which kirk, or connection, or 
other communion may be made to fall under, but 
the enunciation of a fact. 



86 GENERAL COUNCILS. 



§ 5. — General Councils. 

Article XXI. — " General councils may not be 
gathered together without the commandment and 
will of princes. And when they be gathered to- 
gether, forasmuch as they be an assembly of men, 
whereof all be not governed with the Spirii and 
Word of God, they may err, and sometimes have 
erred, in things pertaining to God." 

That great bodies of men, of different countries, 
may not meet together without the sanction of 
their rulers is plain from the principles of civil 
obedience and from primitive practice. That, 
when met together, though Christians, they will 
not be all ruled by the Spieit or Word of God, is 
plain from our Lord's parable of the net, and from 
melancholy experience. That bodies of men, de- 
ficient in this respect, may err, is a self-evident 
truth, — unless, indeed, they be favored with some 
divine superintendence, which has to be proved 
before it can be admitted. 

General councils then may err [as such / — may 
err], unless in any case it is promised, as a matter of 
express supernatural privilege, that they shall not 



GEISTEEAL COUNCILS. 37 

err; a case whicli lies beyond the scope of this 
Article, or at any rate beside its determination. 

Such a promise, however, does exist, in cases 
when general councils are not only gatliered to- 
gether according to " the commandment and will 
of princes," but in the name of Cueist, according 
to our Lord's promise. The Article merely con- 
templates the human prince, not the King of 
Saints. While councils are a thing of earth, their 
infallibility of course is not guaranteed; when 
they are a thing of heaven, their deliberations are 
overruled, and their decrees authoritative. In 
such cases they are Catholic councils ; and it 
would seem, from passages which will be quoted in 
Section 11, that the Homilies recognize four, or 
even six, as bearing this character. Thus Catho- 
lic or (Ecumenical Councils are general councils, 
and something more. Some general councils are 
Catholic, and others are not. Kay, as even Ro- 
manists grant, the same councils may be partly 
Catholic, partly not. 

If Catholicity be thus a quality, found at times 
in general councils, rather than the differentia 
belonging to a certain class of them, it is still 
less surprising that the Article should be silent 
about it. 

"What those conditions are, which fulfil the no- 
tion of a gathering " in the name of Chkist," in 
the case of a particular council, it is not necessarv 



38 GENERAL COUNCILS. 

here to determine. Some have included among 
these conditions, the subsequent reception of its 
decrees by the universal Church ; others, a ratifi- 
cation by the Pope. 

Another of these conditions, however, the Arti- 
cle goes on to mention, viz., that in points neces- 
sary to salvation, a council should prove its de- 
crees by Scripture. 

St. Gregory Nazianzen well illustrates the con- 
sistency of this Article with a belief in the infal- 
libility of (Ecumenical Councils, by his own lan- 
guage on the subject on different occasions. 

In the following passage he aiiticipates the 
Article : — 

"My mind is, if I must write the truth, to keep clear of every 
conference of bishops, for of conference never saw I good come, 
or a remedy so much as an increase of evils. For there is strife 
and ambition, and these have the upper hand of reason." — Ep. 55. 

Yet, on the other hand, he speaks elsewhere of 
" the Holy Council, in Nicsea, and that band of 
chosen men whom the Holy Ghost brought to- 
gether."— Orat. 21. 



PUKGATGRT, PARDONS, IMAGES, ETC. 39 



§ Q.-^Purgaiory, Pardons, Images, Relies^ Invo- 
cation of Saints. 

Article XXII. — " The Eomisli doctrine con- 
cerning purgatory, pardons (de indulgentiis), wor- 
shipping (de veneratione) and adoration, as well 
of images fts of relies, and also invocation of 
saints, is a fond thing (res est futilis), vainly 
(inaniter) invented, and grounded upon no war- 
ranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant (contra- 
dicit) to the Word of Gop." 

Now the first remark that occurs on perusing 
this Article is, that the doctrine objected to is 
"the Romish doctrine." For instance, no one 
would suppose that the Calvanistic doctrine con- 
cerning purgatory, pardons, and image-worship, 
is spoken against. ISTot every doctrine on these 
matters is a fond thing, but the Romish doctrine. 
Accordingly, the Priinitive doctrine is not con- 
demned in it, unless, indeed, the Primitive doc- 
trine be the Romish, which must not be supposed. 
Now, there was a primitive doctrine on all tliese 
points — ^liow far Catholic or universal, is a further 
question, — but still so widely received and so 
respectably supported, that it may well be enter- 



40 PURGATORY, PARDONS, IMAGES, 

tained as a matter of opinion bj a theologian 
now; this, then, \vhate\'^er be its merits, is not 
condemned by this Article. 

This is clear without proof on the face of the 
matter, at least as regards pardons. Of course, 
the Article never meant to make light of every 
doctrine about pardons, but a certain doctrine, 
the Eomish doctrine [as, indeed, the plural foi-m 
itself shows]. 

And [such an understanding of the Article is 
supported by] some sentences in the Homily on 
Peril of Idolatry, in which, as far as regards 
relics, a certain " veneration" is sanctioned by its 
tone in speaking of them, though not, of course, 
the Romish veneration. 

The sentences referred to run as follows : — 

" In the Tripartite Ecclesiastical History, the Ninth Book, and 
Forty-eighth Chapter, is testified, that ' Epiphanius, being yet 
alive, did work miracles ; and that after his death, devils, being 
expelled at his grave or tomb, did roar.' Thus you see what 
authority St. Jerome (who has just been mentioned) and that 
most ancient history give unto the holy and learned Bishop 
Epiphanius." 

Again : — 

"St. Ambrose, in his Treatise of the Death of Theodosius the 
Emperor, saith, 'Helena found the Cross, and the title on it. 
She worshipped the King, and not the wood, surely (for that is 
an heathenish error, and the vanity of the wicked), but she wor- 
shipped Him that hanged on the Cross, and whose Name was 
written on the title,' and so forth. See both the godly Em- 
press's fact, and St. Ambrose's judgment at once ; they thought 



RELICS, INVOCATION OF SAINTS. 41 

it had been an heathenish error, and vanity of the wicked, to 
have worshipped the Cross itself, which was imbrued with our 
Saviour Cueist's own precious blood." — Peril of Idolatry, part 2, 
circ. init. 

In these passages the writer does not positively 
commit himself to the miracles at Epiphanius's 
tomb, or the discovery of the true Cross, hut he 
evidently wishes the hearer to think he believes 
in both. This he would not do, if he thought all 
honor paid to relics wrong. 

If, then, in the judgment of the Homilies, not 
all doctrine concerning veneration of relics is con- 
demned in the Article before us, but a certain 
toleration of them is compatible with its wording, 
neither is all doctrine concerning purgatory, par- 
dons, images, and saints, condemned by the Arti- 
cle, but only " the Romish." 

And further, by " the Romish doctrine " is not 
meant the Tridentine [statement], because this 
Article was drawn up before the decree of the 
Council of Trent. What is opposed is the received 
doctrine of the day, and unhappily of this day 
too, or the doctrine of the Romish schools', a 
conclusion which is still more clear, by consider- 
ing that there are portions in the Tridentine 
[statements] on these subjects which the Article, 
far from condemning, by anticipation approves, 
as far as they go. For instance, the Decree of 
Trent enjoins concerning purgatory thus : — 



4^ PUEGATORY. 

" Among tlie uneducated vulgar let difficult and 
sitbtle questions, which make not for edification, 
and seldom contribute aught towards piety, be 
kept back from popular discourses. Neither let 
them suffer the public mention and treatment of 
uncertain points, or such as look like falsehood.''^ 
Session 25. Again, about images : — '•'■Due honor 
and veneration is to be paid unto them, not that 
we helieve that any divinity or virtue is in them, 
for which they should be worshipped (colendae), 
or that w& should a^k any thing of them, or that 
trust should be reposed in images, as formerly 
was done by the Gentiles, whicli used to place 
their hopes on idols." — Ihid. 

If, then, the doctrine condemned in this Arti- 
cle concerning purgatory, pardons, images, relics, 
and saints, be not the Primitive doctrine, nor the 
Catholic doctrine, nor the Tridentine [statement], 
but the Romish doctrina liomanensium, let us 
next consider what in matter of fact it is. And 

1. As to the doctrine of the Romanists concern- 
ing Purgatory. 

If ow here there was a primitive doctrine, what- 
ever its merits, concerning the fire of judgment, 
which is a possible or a probable opinion, and is 
not condemned. That doctrine is this : that the 
conflagration of the world, or the flames which 
attend the Judge, will be an ordeal through 
whjch all men will pass ; that great saints, such 



PUKGATOKY. «» 

as St. Mary, will pass it unliarmed ; that others 
will suffer loss ; but none will fail under it who 
are built upon the right foundation. Here is on© 
[purgatorian doctrine] not " Romish." 

Another doctrine, purgatorian, but not Romish, 
is that said to be maintained by the Greeks at 
Florence, in which the cleansing, though a pun- 
ishment, was but a.2)(Bna damni, not a pcena 
sensus j not a positive sensible infliction, much 
less the torment of fire, but the absence of God's 
presence. And another purgatory is that in which 
the cleansing is but a progressive sanctification, 
and has no pain at all. 

None of these doctrines does the Article con- 
demn ; any of them may be held by the Anglo- 
Catholic as a matter of private belief; not that 
they are here advocated, one or other, but they 
are adduced as an illustration of what the Article 
does not mean, and to vindicate our Christian 
liberty in a matter where the Church has not con- 
fined it. 

[For what the doctrine which is reprobated is, 
we might refer, in the first place, to the Council 
of Florence, where a decree was passed on the 
subject, were not that decree almost as vague as 
the Tridentine, viz., that deficiency of penance is \ 
made up hj pcejuB pitrgatorim.'] 

"Now doth St. Augustine say, that those men which are cast 
into prison after this life, on that condition, may in no wise be 



^ PURGATORY. 

holpen, though we would help thera never so much. And why? 
Because the sentence of God is uncJiangeahle, and cannot be re- 
voked again. Therefore, let us not deceive ourselves, thinking 
that either we may help otliers, or others may help us, by their 
good and charitable prayers in time to come. For, as the 
preacher saith, ' When the tree falleth, whether it be toward tho 
south or toward the north, in what place soever the tree falleth, 
there it lieth :' meaning thereby, that every mortal man dk'h eiilier 
in the state of salvation or damnation, according as the words of 
the Evangelist John do plainly import, saying, ' Ho that believeth 
on the Son of God hath eternal life ; but he that believeth not 
on the Son, shall never see life, but the wrath of God abideth 
upon him;' — where is, then, tlie third place, wliich they call pur- 
gatory? Or where shall our prayers help and proflt the dead? 
St. Augustine doth only acknowledge two places after this life — 
heaven and hell. As for the third place, he doth plainly deny 
that tliere is any such to be found in all Scripture. Chrysostom 
likewise is of this mind, that, unless we wash away our sins in 
this present world, we shall find no comfort afterwards. And St. 
Cyprian saith, that, after death, repentance and sorrow of pain 
shall be without fruit, weeping also shall be in vain, and prayer 
shall be to no purpose. Therefore, he counselleth all men to 
make provision for tliemselves wliile they may ; because, when 
they are once departed out of this life, there is no place for 
repentance, nor yet for satisfaction." — Homily concerning Prayer, 
pp. 282, 283. 

Now it [would seem] from this passage that the 
Purgatory contemplated by the Homily was one 
.^ for which no one will for an instant pretend to 
adduce even those Fathers who most favor Rome, 
viz., one in which our state would he changed^ in 
which God's sentence could be reversed. " The 
sentence of God," says the writer, " is unchange- 
able, and cannot be revoked again ; there is no 



PUEGATOET. ^ 

place for repentance^ On the other hand, the 
Council of Trent, and Augustin and Cjprian, so 
far as they express or imply any opinion approxi- 
mating to that of the Council, held Purgatory to 
be a place for helievers, not unbelievers, not where 
men who have lived and died in God's wrath 
may gain pardon, but where those who have 
already been pardoned in this life may be cleansed 
and purified for beholding the face of God. The 
Homily, then, and therefore the Article [as far as 
the Homily may be taken to explain it], does not 
speak of the Tridentine purgatory. 

The mention of prayers for the dead in the 
above passage, afibrds an additional illustration 
of the limited and [relative] sense of the terms of 
the Article now under consideration. For such 
prayers are obviously not condemned in it in the 
abstract, or in every shape, but as offered to rescue 
the lost from eternal fire. 

[Hooker, in his Sermon on Pride, gives us a 
second view of the " Eomish doctrine of Purga- 
tory," from the Schoolmen, After speaking of 
the poena damni, he says : — 

" The other punishment, which hath in it not only loss of joy, 
but also sense of grief, vexation, and woe, is that whereunto they 
give the name of purgatory pains, in nothing different from those 
very infernal torments which the souls of castaway.'?, together with 
damned spirits do endure, save only in this, there is an appointed 
term to the one, to the other none ; but for the time they last 
they are equal." — Vol iiL p. 798.] 



46 PURGATOTIT. 

Such doctrine, too, as the following may Well 
be included in that wliich the Article condemns 
under the name of " Komish." The passage to be 
quoted has already appeared in these Tracts. 

"In the 'Speculum Exemplorum,' it is said, that a certain 
priest, in an ecstasy, saw the soul of Constantius Turritanus in 
the eaves of his house, tormented with frosts and cold rains, and 
afterwards climbing up to heaven upon a shining pillar. And a 
certain monk saw some souls roasted upon spits like pigs, and 
some devils basting them with scalding lard ; but a while after, 
they were carried to a cool place, and so proved purgatory. But 
Bishop Theobald, standing upon a piece of ice to cool his feet, 
was nearer purgatory than he was aware, and was convinced of 
it, when he heard a poor soul telling him, that under that ice he 
was tormented; and that he should be delivered, if for thirty 
days continual, he would say for him thirty masses. And some 
such thing was seen by Conrade and Udalric in a pool of watef ; 
for the place of purgatory was not yet resolved on, till St. 
Patrick had the key of it delivered to him, which when one 
Nicholas borrowed of him, lie saw as strange and true things 
there, as ever Virgil dreamed of in his purgatory, or Cicero in 
his dream of Scipio, or Plato in his Gorgias, or Phmdo, who in- 
deed are the surest authors to prove purgatory. But because to 
preach false stories was forbidden by the Council of Trent, there 
are yet remaining more certain arguments, even revelations made 
by angels, and the testimony of St. Odilio himself, who heard the 
devil complain (and he had great reason surely) that the souls of 
dead men were dally snatched out of his hands, by the alms and 
prayers of the living ; and the sister of St. Damianus, being too 
much pleased with hearing of a piper, told her brother, that she 
was to be tormented for fifteen days in purgatory. 

" Wo do not think that the wise men in the Church of Rome 
believed these narratives ; for if they did, they were not wise ; but 
this we know, that by such stories the people were brought into 



PUKGATORT. 47 

h belief of it, and having served their turn of them, the master- 
builders used them as false arches and Gentries, taking them away 
when the parts of the building were made firm and stable by 
authority." — Jer. Taylor, Works, vol. x. pp. 151, 152. 

Another specimen of doctrine, which no one 
will attempt to proye from Scripture, is the fol- 
lowing : — 

" Eastwardly, between two walls, was a vast place of purga- 
tory fixed, and beyond it a pond to rinse souls in that had waded 
through purgatory, the water being salt and cold beyond compari- 
son. Over tlois purgatory, St. Nicholas was the owner. 

" There was a mighty bridge, all beset with nails and spikes, 
and leading to the mount of joy ; on which mount was a stately 
church, seemingly capable to contain all the inhabitants of the 
world, and into which the souls were no sooner entered, but that 
they forgot all their former torments. 

" Returning to the first Church, there they found St. Michael 
the Archangel, and the Apostles Peter and Paul. St. Michael 
caused all the white souls to pass through the flames, unharmed, 
to the mount of joy ; and those that had black and white spots, 
St. Peter led into purgatory to be purified. 

" In one part sate St. Paul, and the devil opposite to him with 
his guards, with a pair of scales between them, weighing all such 
souls as were all over black ; when upon turning a soul, the scale 
turned towards St. Paul, he sent it to purgatory, tliere to expiate 
its sins ; when towards the devil, his crew, with great triumph, 
plunged it into the flaming pit 

" The rustic Ukewise saw near the entrance of the town-hall, 
aa it were, four streets ; the first was full of innumerable fur- 
naces and caldrons filled with flaming pitch and other liquids, 
and boiling of souls, whose heads were like those of black fishes 
in the seething liquor. Tlie second had its caldrons stored with 
snow and ice, to torment souls with horrid cold. The third had 
thereof boiling sulphur and other materials, aflFording the worst 
of stinks, for the vexing of souls tliat had wallowed iii tb* filth 



48 PARDONS. 

of lust. The fourth had caldrons of a most horrid salt and 
black water. Now sinners of all sorts were alternately tormented 
in these caldrons." — Purgatory provid by Mirack, by S. Johnson, 
pp. 8-10. 

[Let it be considered, then, whether on the 
whole the " Komish doctrine of Purgatory," which 
the Article condemns, and which was generally 
believed in the Roman Church three centuries 
since, as well as now, viewed in its essence, be not 
the doctrine, that the punishment of unrighteous 
Christians is temporary, not eternal, and that the 
purification of the righteous is a portion of the 
same punishment, together with the superstitions, 
and impostures for the sake of gain, consequent 
thereupon.] 

2. Pardons, or Indulgences. 

The history of the rise of the Reformation will 
interpret " the Romish doctrine concerning par- 
dons," without going further. Burnet thus speaks 
on the subject : — 

" In the primitive Church there were very severe rules made, 
obliging all that had sinned publicly (and they were afterwards 
applied to such as had sinned secretly) to continue for many years 
in a state of separation from the Sacrament, and of penance and 
discipline. But because all such general rules admit of a great 
variety of circumstances, taken from men's sins, their persons, 
and their repentance, there was a power given to all Bishops, by 
tlie Council c f Nice, to shorten the time, and to relax the severity 
of those Canons, and such favor as they saw cause to grant, was 
called indulgence. This was just and necessary, and was a provi- 
sion without which no constitution or society can be well gov- 
erned. But after the tenth century, t^ the Popes came to take 



PARDONS. 49 

this power in the whole extent of it into their own hands, so they 
found it too feeble to carry on the great designs that they grafted 
upon it. 

" They gave it high names, and called it a plenary remission> 
and the pardon of all sins: which the world was taught to look 
on as a thing of a much higher nature, than the bare excusing of 
men from discipline and penance. Purgatory was then got to 
be firmly believed, and all men were strangely possessed with the 
terror of it : so a deliverance from purgatory, and by consequence 
an immediate admission into heaven, was beheved to be the cer- 
tain effect of it. Multitudes were, by these means, engaged to 
go to the Holy Land, to recover it out of the hands of the Sara- 
cens : afterwards they armed vast numbers against the heretics, 
to extirpate them : they fought also all those quarrels, which their 
ambitious pretensions engaged them in, with emperors and othei 
princes, by the same pay ; and at last they set it to sale with the 
same impudence, and almost with the same metliods, that mounte- 
banks use in venting of their secrets. 

" This was so gross, even in an ignorant age, and among the 
ruder sort, that it gave the first rise to the Eeformation : and as 
the progress of it was a very signal work of God, so it was in a 
great measure owing to the scandals that this shameless practice 
had given the world." 

Again : — 

"The virtue of indulgences is the applying the treasure of the 
Church upon such terms as Popes shall think fit to prescribe, in 
order to the redeeming souls from purgator}^, and from all other 
temporal punishments, and that for such a number of years as 
shall be specified in the bulls; some of which have gone to thou- 
sands of years ; one I have seen to ten hundred thousand : and 
as these indulgences are sometimes granted by special tickets, 
like tallies struck on that treasure ; so sometimes they are affixed 
to particular churches and altars, to particular times or days, 
chiefly to the year of jubilee ; they are also affixed to such things 
as may be carried about, to Agnus Dei's, to medals, to rosaries, 

3 



00 PAEBONS. 

and scapularies; they are also affixed to some prayers, the devout 
saying of them being a mean to procure great indulgences. The 
granting these is left to the Pope's discretion, who ought to dis- 
tribute them as he thinks may tend most to the honor of God and 
the good of the Church ; and he ought not to be too profuse, 
much less to be too scanty in dispensing them. 

"This has been the received doctrine and practice of the 
Church of Eome since the twelfth century ; and the Council of 
Trent, in a hurry, in its last session, did, in very general words, 
approve of the practice of the Church in this matter, and decreed 
that indulgences should be continued ; only they restrained some 
abuses, in particular that of selling them." , 

Burnet goes on to maintain tliat the act of 
the Council was incomplete and evaded. K it 
be necessary to say more on the subject, let us 
attend to the following passage from Jeremy 
Taylor :— 

" I might have instanced in worse matters, made by the Popes 
of Rome to be pious works, the condition of obtaining indul- 
gences. Such as was the bull of Pope Julius the Second, giving 
indulence to him that meeting a Frenchman should kill liim, and 

another for the killing of a Venetian I desire this 

only instance may be added to it, that Pope Paul the Third, he 
that convened the Council of Trent, and Julius the Third, for fear, 
as I may suppose, the Council should forbid any more such fol- 
lies, for a farewell to this game, gave an indulgence to the frater- 
nity of the Sacrament of the Altar, or of the Blessed Body of 
Our Lord Jesus Chbist, of such a vastness and unreasonable 
folly, that it puts us beyond the question of rehgion, to an in- 
quiry whether it were not done either in perfect distraction, or, 
with a worse design, to make religion to be ridiculous, and to 
expose it to a contempt and scorn. Tlie conditions of the in- 
dulgence are, either to visit the Church of St. Hilary, Chartres, to 
Bay a 'Pater Noster' and an 'Ave Mary' every Friday, or, at most^ 



PAKDONS. 61 

to bo present at processions and other divine service upon ' Corpus 
Christi Day.' The gift is — as many privileges, indults, exemp- 
tions, liberties, immunities, plenary pardons of sins, and other 
spiritual graces, as were given to the fraternity of the Image of 
our Saviour ' ad Sancta Sanctorum ;' the fraternity of the charity 
and great hospital of St. James in Augusta, of St. John Baptist, 
of St. Cosmas and Darianus ; of the Florentine nation ; of the 
Hospital of the Holt Ghost in Saxia ; of the order of St. Aus- 
tin and St. Champ ; of the fraternities of the said city ; of the 
churches of our Lady 'de populo et verbo;' and all those that 
were ever given to them that visited these churches, or those 
which should ever be given hereafter — a pretty large gift ! In 
which there were so many pardons, quarter-pardons, half-pardons, 
true pardons, plenary pardons, quarantines, and years of quaran- 
tines ; that it is a harder tiling to number them, than to purchase 
them. I shall remark in these some particulars to be considered. 

" 1. That a most scandalous and unchristian dissolution and death 
of all ecclesiastical discipline, is consequent to the making all sin 
so cheap and trivial a thing ; that the horrible demerits and ex- 
emplary punishment and remotion of scandal and satisfactions to 
the Church, are indeed reduced to trifling and mock penances. 
He that shall send a servant with a candle to attend the Holy 
Sacrament, when it sliall be carried to sick people, or shall go 
himself; or, if he can neither go nor send, if he say a 'Pater 
Noster' and an 'Ave,' he shall have a hundred years of true 
pardon. This is fair and easy. But then, 

" 2. It would be considered what is meant by so many years 
of pardon, and so many years of true pardon. I know of but 
one natural interpretation of it ; and that it can mean nothing, 
but that some of the pardons are but fantastical, and not true ; 
and in this I find no fault, save only that it ought to have been 
eaid, that all of them are fantastical. 

" 3. It were fit we learned how to compute four thousand and 
eight hundred years of quarantines, and a remission of a third 
part of all their sins ; for so much is given to every brother and 
aister of this fraternity, upon Easter Day, and eight days after. 



S0 PAKDOXS. 

Now if a brother needs not thus many, it would be considered 
whether it did not encourage a brother or a frail sister to use all 
their medicine, and sin more freely, lest so great a gift become 
useless. 

"4. And this is so much the more considerable because the 
gift is vast beyond all imagination. The iirst four days in Lent 
they may purchase thirty-three thousand years of pardon, besides 
a plenary remission of all their sins over and above. The first 
week of Lent, a hundred and three-and-thirty thousand years of 
pardon, besides five plenary remissions of all their sins, and two 
third parts besides, and the delivery of one soul out of purga- 
tory. The second week in Lent, a hundred and eight- and- fifty 
thousand years of pardon, besides the remission of all their sins, 
and a third part besides; and the delivery of one soul. The 
third vreek in Lent, eighty thousand years, besides a plenary 
remission, and the delivery of one soul out of purgatory. The 
fourth week in Lent, threescore thousand years of pardon, be- 
sides a remission of two-thirds of all their sins, and one plenary 
remission, and one soul delivered. The fifth week, seventy -nine 
thousand years of pardon, and the deliverance of two souls; 
only the two thousand seven hundred years that are given for 
the Sunday, may be had twice that day, if they Avill visit the 
altar twice, and as many quarantines. The sixth week, t^vo hun- 
dred and five thousand years, besides quarantines and four plenary 
pardons. Only on Palm Sunday, whose portion is twenty-five 
thousand years, it may bo had twice that day. And all this 
is the price of him that shall, upon these days, visit the altar in 
the church of St. Hilary. And this runs on to tlie Fridays, and 
many festivals, and other solemn days in the other parts of the 
year." — Jer. Taylor, vol. xi. p. 53-56. 

[The doctrine then of pardons, spoken of in the 
Article, is the doctrine maintained and acted on 
in the Eoman Church, that remission of the pen- 
alties of sin in the next life may be obtained by 



IMAGES AND RELICS. 53 

the power of tlie Pope, with such abuses as money 
payments consequent thereupon.*] 

3. Veneration and worshipping of Images and 
Relics. 

That the Homilies do not altogether discard 
reverence towards relics, has already been shown. 
Now let us see what they do discard. 

" What meaneth it that Christian men, after the use of the 
Gentiles idolaters, cap and kneel before images? which, if they 
had any sense and gratitude, would kneel before men, carpenters, 
masons, plasterers, founders, and goldsmitlis, their makers and 
framers, by whose means they have attained this honor, which 
else should have been evil-favored, and rude lumps of clay or 
plaster, pieces of timber, stone, or metal, without shape or fashion, 
and so without all estimation and honor, as that idol in the Pagan 
poet confesseth, saying, ' I was once a vile block, but now I am 
become a god,' &c. What a fond thing is it for man, who hath 
life and reason, to bow himself to a dead and insensible image, 
the work of his own hand I Is not this stooping and kneeling 
before them [adoration of tliem], which is forbidden so earnestly 
by God's word? Let such as so fall down before images of 
saints, know and confess that they exhibit that honor to dead 
stocks and stones, which the saints themselves, Peter, Paul, and 
Barnabas, would not to be given to them, being alive ; which the 
angel of God forbiddeth to be given to him. And if they say 
they exhibit such honor not to the image, but to the saint whom 
it representeth, they are convicted of folly, to believe that they 
please saints with that honor, which they abhor as a spoil of 
God's honor." — Homihj on Peril of Idolatry, p. 19L 

* " The pardons then, spoken of in the Article, are large and 
reckless indulgences from the penalties of sin obtained on money 
payments." — 1st ed. 



(54 IMAGES AND RELICS. 

Again : — 

" Tlius fer Lactantius, and much more, too long here to write, 
of candle lighting in temples before images and idols for religion ; 
whereby appeareth both the fooUshness tliereof, and also that in 
opinion and act we do agree altogether in our candle-religion 
with the Gentiles idolaters. What meaneth it that they, after the 
example of the Gentiles idolaters, bum incense, offer up gold to im- 
ages, hang up crutches^ chains, and ships, legs, arms, and whole men 
and women of wax, before images, as though by them, or saints 
(as they say) they were delivered from lameness, sickness, cap- 
tivity, or shipwreck ? Is not this ' colore imagines,' to worship 
images, so earnestly forbidden in God's word? If they deny it, 
let them read the eleventh chapter of Daniel the Prophet, who 
saith of Antichrist, ' He shall worship a god, whom his fathers 
knew not, with gold, silver, and with precious stones, and other 
things of pleasure:' in which place the Latin word is colet.'''' . . . 
' To increase this madness, wicked men, Avhich have the keeping 
of such imoges, for their great lucre and advantage, after the 
example of the Gentiles idolaters, have reported and spread abroad, 
as well by lying tales as written fables, divers miracles of images j 
as that such an image miraculously was sent from heaven, even 
like the Palladium, or Slagna Diana Ephesiorum. Such another 
was as miraculously found in the earth, as the man's head was in 
the Capitol, or the horse's head in Capua. Such an imago was 
brought by angels. Such an one came itself far from the East 
to the West, as Dame Fortune fled to Rome. Such an image of 
our Lady was painted by St. Luke, whom of a physician they havo 
made a painter for that purpose. Such an one an hundred yokes 
of oxen could not move, like Bona Dea, whom the sliip could not 
carry ; or Jupiter Olympus, which laugliod the artificers to scorn, 
that went about to remove him to Rome. Some images, though 
they were hard and stony, yet, for tender heart and pity, v>'ept. 
Some, hke Castor and PoUux, lielping their friends in battle, 
Bwcat, as marble pillars do in daukish weather. Some spake 
more monstrously than ever did Balaam's ass, who had life and 



IMAGES AND RELICS. 65 

breath in him. Such a cripple came and saluted this saint of 
oak, and by and by ho was made whole ; and, lo ! here hangeth 
his crutch. Such an one in a tempest vowed to St. Christopher, 
and 'scaped ; and behold, here is a ship of wax. Such an one, 
by St. Leonard's help, brake out of prison, and see where his 
fetters hang." . . . "The Relics we must kiss and offer unto, 
specially on Relic Sunday. And while we offer (that we should 
not be weary, or repent us of our cost), the inusic and minstrelsy 
goetli merrily all the offertory time, with praising and calling 
upon those saints, whose relics be then in presence. Yea, and 
the water also, wherein those relics have been dipped, must witk 
great reverence be reserved, as very holy and effectuous." . . . 
" Because Relics were so gainful, few places were there but they 
had Rehcs provided for them. And for more plenty of Relics, 
some one saint had many heads, one in one place, and another in 
another place. Some had si.t arms, and twenty-six fingers. And 
where our Lord bare His cross alone, if all the pieces of the 
relics thereof were gathered together, the greatest sliip in Eng- 
land would scarcely bear them ; and yet the greatest part of it, 
they say, doth yet remain in the hands of the Infidels; for the 
which they pray in their beads-bidding, that they may get it 
also into their hands, for such godly use and purpose. And not 
only the bones of the saints, but every thing appertaining to 
them, was a holy rehc. In some place they offer a sword, in 
some the scabbard, in some a shoe, in some a saddle that had 
been set upon some holy horse, in some the coals wherewith St. 
Laurence was roasted, in some place the tail of the ass which 
our Lord Jesi'S Christ sat on, to be kissed and offered unto for a 
relic. For ratlier than they would lack a relic, they would offer 
you a horse hone instead of a virgin's arm, or the tail of the ass 
to be kissed and offered unto for relics. wicked, impudent, 
and most shameless men, the devisers of these things ! silly, : 
Ibohsh, and dastardly daws, and more beastly than the ass whose 
tail they kissed, that beUevo such tilings!" . . . "Of these 
things already rehearsed, it is evident that our image maintainors 
have not only made images, and set them up in temples, as did 



56 IMAGES AND RELICS. 

the Grentiles idolaters their idols ; but also that they have had 
the same idolatrous opinions of the saints, to whom they have 
made images, which the Gentiles idolaters had of their false 
gods ; and have not only worshij)ped their images with the same 
rites, ceremonies, superstitions, and aU circumstances, as did the 
Gentiles idolaters their idols, but in many pbints have also far 
exceeded them in all wickedness, foohshness, and madness." — 
Homily on Peril of Idolatry, pp. 193-197. 

It mil be observed that in tbis extract, as else- 
where in tlie Homilies, it is implied that the 
Bisbop or tbe Cbnrcb of Rome is Anticbrist; 
but tbis is a statement bearing on propbetical 
interpretation, not on doctrine ; and one besides 
wbicb cannot be reasonably brougbt to illustrate 
or explain any of tbe positions of tbe Articles; 
and tberefore it may be suitably passed over. 

In another place tbe Homilies speak as follows : 

" Our churches stand full of such great puppets, wondrotisly 
decked and adorned ; garlands and coronets be set on their heads, 
precious pearls hanging about their necks ; their fingers shine 
with rings, set vrith precious stones; their dead and stiff 
bodies are clothed with garments stiff with gold. You would 
believe tliat the images of our men-saints were some princes of 
Persia land with their proud apparel; and the idols of our 
women-saints were nice and well-trhnmed harlots, tempting their 
paramours to wantonness: whereby the saints of God are not 
honored, but most dishonored, and their godliness, soberness, 
chastity, contempt of riches, and of the vanity of the world, de- 
faced and brought in doubt by such monstrous decking, most differ- 
ing from their sober and godly lives. And because tbe whole 
pageant must thoroughly be played, it is not enough thus to deck 
idols, but at last come in the priests themselves, likewise decked 
with gold and pearl, that they may be meet servants for such 



IMAGES AND RELICS. 



br 



lords and ladies, and fit worshippers of sucli gods and goddesses. 
And with a solemn pace they pass forth before tliese golden pup- 
pets and faU down to the ground on their marrow-bones before 
these honorable idols : and then rising up again, offer up odors and 
incense unto them, to give the people an example of double idol- 
atry, by worshipping not only the idol, but the gold also, and 
riches, wherewith it is garnished. "Which thing, the most part 
of our old Martyrs, rather than they would do, or once kneel, or 
offer up one crumb of incense before an image, suffered most cruel 
and terrible deaths, as the histories of them at large do declare." 
. . . " books and scriptures, in the which the devilish 
schoolmaster, Satan, hath penned the lewd lessons of wicked 
idolatry, for his dastardly disciples and scholars to behold, read, 
and learn, to God's most high dishonor, and their most horrible 
damnation I Have we not been much bound, think you, to those 
which should have taught us the truth out of God's Book and his 
Holy Scripture, that they have shut up that Book and Scripture 
from us, and none of us so bold as once to open it, or read in it ? 
And instead thereof, to spread us abroad these goodly, carved, 
and gilded books and painted scripture, to teach us such good and 
godly lessons ? Have not they done well, after they ceased to 
stand in pulpits themselves, and to teach the people committed to 
their instruction, keeping silence of God's word, and become 
dumb dogs (as the Prophet calleth them), to set up in their stead, 
on- every pillar and corner of the church, such goodly doctors, as 
dumb, but more wicked than themselves be ? We need not to 
complain of the lack of one dumb parson, having so many dumb 
devilish vicars (I mean these idols and painted puppets) to teach 
in their stead. Xow in the mean season, whilst the dumb and 
dead idols stand thus decked and clothed, contrary to God's law 
and commandment, the poor Christian people, the lively images 
of God, commended to us so tenderly by our Saviour Christ, as 
most dear to Him, stand naked, shivering for cold, and their 
teeth chattering in their heads, and no man covereth them, are 
Opined with hunger and thirst, and no man giveth them a penny 
to refresh them ; whereas pounds be ready at all times (contrary 

o-v- 

o 



08 IMAGES AND EELICS. 

to God's word and will) to deck and trim dead stocks and stones, 
which neither feel cold, hunger, nor thirst." — Homily on Peril of 
Idolatry, p. 219-222. 

Again, with a covert allusion to the abuses of the 
day, the Homilist says elsewhere, of Scripture : — 

" There shall you read of Baal, Moloch, Chamos, Melchom, 
Ballpeor, Astaroth, Bel, the Dragon, Priapus, the brazen Serpent, 
the twelve Signs, and many otliers, unto whose images the people, 
with great devotion, invented pilgrimages, j)recious decking and 
censing them, kneeling down and offering to them, thinking tliat an 
high merit before God, and to be esteemed above the precepts 
and commandments of God." — Homily on Good Works, p. 42. 

Again, soon after: — 

" What man, having any judgment or learning, joined with a 
true zeal unto God, doth not see and lament to have entered into 
Christ's religion, such false doctrine, superstition, idolatry, hy- 
pocrisy, and other enormities and abuses, so as by httle and httle, 
through the sour leaven thereof, the sweet bread of God's holy 
word liath been much hindered and laid apart ? Xever had the 
Jews, in their most bhndness, so many pilgrimages unto images, 
nor used so much kneeling, kissing, and censing of them, as hath 
been used in our time. Sects and feigned religions were neither 
the fortieth part so many among the Jews, nor more supersti- 
tion sly and ungodly abused, than of late years they have been 
among us : which sects and religions had so many hypocritical 
and feigned works in their state of religion, as they arrogantly 
named it, that their lamps, as they said, ran always over, able to 
satisfy not only for their own sins, but also for all other their 
benefactors, brothers, and sisters of religion, as most ungodly and 
craftily they had persuaded the multitude of ignorant people ; 
keeping in divers places, as it were, marts or markets of merits, 
being full of their holy relics, images, shrines, and works of over- 
flowing abundance, ready to be sold ; and all things which they 



IMAGES AND KELICS. flO 

had were called holy — holy cowls, holy girdles, holy pardons, holy 
beads, holy shoes, holy rules, and all full of holiness. And what 
thing can be more foolish, more superstitious, or ungodly, than 
that men, women, and children, should wear a friar's coat to 
deliver them from agues or pestilence ; or when they die, or 
when they be buried, cause it to be cast upon them, in hope 
thereby to he saved 1 Which superstition, although (thanks be to 
God!) it hath been little used in this realm, yet in divers other 
realms it hath been, and yet is, used among many, both learned 
and unlearned." — Homilij on Good Works, pp. 45, 46. 

[Once more : — 

" True religion, then, and pleasing of God, standeth not in 
making, setting up, painting, gilding, clothing, and decking of 
dumb and dead images (which be but great puppets and babies 
for old fools in dotage, and wicked idolatry, to dally and play 
with), nor in kissing of them, capping, kneeling, offering to them, 
incensing of them, setting up of candles, hanging vip of legs, 
arms, or whole ])odies of wax before them, or praying or asking 
of them, or of saints, things belonging only to God to give. But 
all these things be vain and abominable, and most damnable be- 
fore God." — Ilomihj on Peril of Idolatry, p. 223.] 

Now tlie veneration and worsliip condemned in 
tliese and otlier passages are siicli as tliese : kneel- 
ing before images, lighting candles to tliem, offer- 
ing tliem incense, going on pilgrimage to tliem, 
hanging up crutches, &c., before them, lying tales 
about them, belief in miracles as if wrought hj 
them through illusion of the devil, decking them 
up immodestly, and providing incentives by them 
to bad passions ; and, in like manner, merry music 
and minstrelsy, and licentious practices in honor 
of relics, counterfeit relics, multiplication of them, 



CO IMAGES AilD RELICS. 

absurd pretences about tbem. This is what the 
Article means by " the Romish doctrine," which 
in agreement to one of the above extracts, it calls 
" a fond thing," res futilis / for who can ever 
hope, except the grossest and most blinded minds, 
to be gaining tlie favor of the blessed saints, while 
they come with unchaste thoughts and eyes that 
cannot cease from sin ; and to be profited by " pil- 
grimage-going," in which " Lady Venus and her 
son Cupid were rather worshipped wantonly in 
the flesh, than God the Father, and our Saatcour 
Cheist His So>r, truly worshipped in the SpiEir ?" 
Here again it is remarkable that, urged by the 
truth of the allegation, the Council of Trent is 
obliged, both to confess the above-mentioned enor- 
mities in the veneration of relics and images, and 
to forbid them : — 

" Into these I10I7 and salutary observances, should any abuses 
creep, of these the Holy Council strongly [vehementer] desires 
the utter extinction ; so tliat no images of a false doctrine, and 
supplying to the uninstructed opportunity of perilous error, 
should be set up. . . . All superstition also in invocation of saints, 
veneration of relics, and sacred use of images, be put away; all 
filthy lucre be cast out of doors ; and all wantonness be avoided ; 
so that images be not ^jaz^fec? or adorned luith an immodest beauty ; 
or the celebration of Saints and attendance on Relics be abused to 
revelries and drunhennesses ; as though festival days were kept in 
honor of saints by luxury and lasciviousness." — Sess. 25. 

[On the whole, then, by the Romish doctrine of 
the veneration and worshipping of images and 



INVOCATION OF SAINTS. 61 

relics, the Article means all maintenance of those 
idolatrous honoi-s which have been and are paid 
them so commonly throughout the Church of 
Eome, with the superstitions, profanities, and im- 
purities consequent thereupon.] 

4. Invocation of Saints. 

By " invocation" here is not meant the mere 
circumstance of addressing beings out of sight, 
because we use the Psalms in our daily service, 
which are frequent in invocations of Angels to 
praise and bless God, In the Benedicite too we 
address "the spirits and souls of the righteous." 

Nor is it a "fond" invocation to pray that 
unseen beings may bless us ; for this [Bishop Ken 
does in his Evening Hymn : — 

" may my guardian while I sleep, 
Close to my bed his vigils keep, 
His love angelical iiwtil, 
Stop all the avenues of ill," &c.]* 

On the other hand, judging from the example 
set us in the Homilies themselves, invocations are 
not censurable, and certainly not " fond," if we 
mean nothing definite by them, addressing them 
to beings which we know cannot hear, and using 
them as interjections. The Ilomilist seems to 
avail Inmself of this proviso in a passage, which 

* [A passage here occurred in 1st edition upon Rev. i. 4.] 



62 INVOCATION or SAINTS. 

will serve to begin our extracts in illustration of 
the siijperstitious use of invocations : — 

" We have left Him neither heaven, nor earth, nor water, nor 
country, nor city, peace nor war to rule and govern, neither men, 
nor beasts, nor their diseases to cure; that a godly man might 
justly, for zealous indignation, cry out, heaven, earth, and 
seas,* what madness and wickedness against GoD are men fallen 
into I What dishonor do the creatures to their Creator and 
Maker ! And if we remember God sometimes, yet, because we 
doubt of Ilis ability or will to help, we join to Him another 
helper, as if he were a noun adjective, using these sayings : such 
as learn, God and St. Nicholas be my speed : such as neese, God 
help and. St. John : to the horse, God and St. Loy save thee. 
Thus are we become like horses and mules, which have no under- 
standing. For is there not one God only, who by His power and 
wisdom made all things, and by His providence governeth the 
same, and by His goodness maintaineth and saveth them ? Be 
not all things of Him, by Him, and through Him ? Why dost 
thou turn from the Creator to the creatures? This is the manner 
of the Gentiles idolaters ; but thou art a Christian, and therefore 
by Christ alone hast access to God the Father, and help of 
Him only.'' — Homily on Peril of Idolatry, p. 189. 

Again, just before — 

" Terentius Varro showeth, that there were three hundred Ju- 
piters in his time : there were no fewer Veneres and Dianae : we 
had no fewer Christophers, Ladies, and Mary Magdalens, and 
other saints. CEuomaus and Hesiodus show, that in their time 
there were thirty thousand gods. I think we had no fewer saints, 
to whom we gave the honor due to God. And they have not 
only spoiled the true living God of His due honor in temples, 
cities, countries, and lands, by such devices and inventions as the 

* " coelum, terra, maria NeptunL" — Terent Adelph., v. 3. 



INVOCATIOI^ OF SAIIS^TS. 63 

Gentiles idolaters have done before ihem ; but the sea and waters 
have as well special saints with them, as they had gods with the 
Gentiles, Neptune, Triton, Nereus, Castor and Pollux, Venus, and 
such other : in whose places become St. Christopher, St. Clement, 
and divers other, and specially our Lady, to whom shipmen sing, 
' Ave maris Stella.' Neither hath the fire escaped their idolatrous 
inventions. For, instead of Vulcan and Vesta, the Gentiles' 
gods of the fire, our men have placed St. Agatha, and make lit- 
ters on her day to quench fire with. Every artificer and profes- 
sion hath his special saint, as a peculiar god. As for example, 
scholars have St. Nicholas and St. Gregory ; painters, St. Luke ; 
neither lack soldiers their Mars, nor lovers their Venus, amongst 
Christians. All diseases have their special saints, as gods the curers 
of them ; . . . the falling-evil St. Cornelio, the tooth-ache St. Apol- 
Un, &c. Neither do beasts nor cattle lack their gods with us ; 
for St. Loy is the horseleech, and St. Anthony the swineherd." 
—Ibid., p. 188. 

The same subject is introduced in connection 
with a lament over the falling off of attendance 
on religious T\'orship consequent upon the Refor- 
mation : — 

" God's vengeance hath been and is daily provoked, because 
much wicked people pass nothing to resort to the church, either 
for that they are so sore blinded, that they understand nothing of 
God and godliness, and care not with devilish example to ofiend 
their neighbors ; or else for that they see the Church altogether 
scorned of such gay gazing sights, as their gross fantasy was 
greatly delighted with, because they see the false religion aban- 
doned, and the true restored, which seemeth an unsavory thing to 
their uusavory taste ; as may appear by this, that a woman said 
to her neighbor, ' Alas, gossip, what shall we now do at church, 
since all the saints are taken away, since all tlie goodly sights 
we were wont to have are gone, since we cannot hear the like 
piping, singing, chanting, and playing upon tlie organs, that we could 



64 INVOCATION OF SAINTS. 

before ?' But, dearly belo^d, we ought greatly to rejoice, and 
give God thanks, that our churches are delivered of all those 
things which displeased GOD so sore, and filthily defiled His house 
and His place of prayer, for the which He hath justly destroyed 
many nations, according to the saying of St. Paul : 'If any man 
defile the temple of God, God will him destroy.' And tliis ought 
we greatly to praise God for, that superstitious and idolatrous man- 
ners as were utterly naught, and defaced God's glory, are utterly 
abolished, as they most justly deserved ; and yet those things 
that either God was honored with, or His people edified, are de- 
cently retained, and in our churches comely practised." — On the 
Place and Time of Prayer, pp. 293, 294. 

Again : — 

" There are certain conditions most requisite to be found in 
every such a one that must be called upon, which if they be not 
found ill Him unto whom we pray, then doth our prayer avail U3 
nothing, but is altogether in vain. 

" The first is this, that He, to whom we make our prayers, be 
able to help us. The second is, that He will help us. The third 
is, that He be such a one as may hear our prayers. The fourth 
is, that He understand better than ourselves what we lack, and 
how far we have need of help. If these things bo to be found in 
any other, saving only 'God, then may we lawfully call upon 
some other besides God. But what man is so gross, but he well 
understandeth that these things are only proper to Him who is 
omnipotent, and knowcth all things, even the very secrets of the 
heart ; that is to say, only and to God alone ? Whereof it fol- 
loweth that we must call neither upon angel, nor yet upon 
saint, but only and solely upon God, as St. Paul doth write: 
' How shall men call upon Him, in whom they have not believed ?' 
So that invocation or prayer may not bo made without faitli in 
Him on whom they call; but that we must first believe in Him 
before we can make our prayer unto Ilim, whereupon we must 
only and solely pray unto God. For to say that we sliould be- 
lieve in either angel or saint, or in any other living creature, were 



INVOOATIOI^ OF SAINTS. 65 

most horrible blasphemy against God and His holy word: neither 
ought this fancy to enter into the heart of any Christian man, be- 
cause we are expressly taught in the word of the Lord only to 
repose our faith in the blessed Trinity, in whose only name we 
are also baptized, according to the express commandment of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, in tlie last of St. Matthew. 

" But that the truth hereof may better appear, even to them 
that be most simple and unlearned, lot us consider what prayer is. 
St. Augustine calleth it a lifting up of the mind to God; that is 
to say, an humble and lowly pouring out of the heart to God. 
Isidorus saith, that it is an affection of the heart, and not a labor 
of the lips. So that, by these plans, true prayer doth consist not 
so much in the outward sound and voice of words, as in the in- 
ward groaning and crying of the heart to God. 

" Now, then, is there any angel, any virgin, any patriarch, or 
prophet, among the dead, that can understand or know the mean- 
ing of the heart ? The Scripture saith, ' it is God that searcbeth 
the heart and reins, and that He only knoweth the hearts of the 
children of men.' As for the saints, they have so little knowl- 
edge of the secrets of the heart, that many of tlie ancient Fathers 
greatly doubt whether they know any thing at all, that is 
commonly done on eartli. And albeit some think they do, yet St. 
Augustine, a doctor of great autliority, and also antiquity, hath 
his opinion of them ; that they know no more what we do on 
earth, than we know what they do in heaven. For proof where- 
of, he allegeth the words of Isaiah the prophet, where it is said, 
' Abraham is ignorant of us, and Israel knoweth us not.' His 
mind therefore is this, not that we should put any rehgion in 
worshipping them, or praying unto them ; but that we should 
honor them by following their virtuous and godly life. For, as he 
witnessoth in another place, the martyrs, and holy men in time 
past, were wont, after their death, to be remembered and named 
of the priest at divine service : but never to be invocated or 
caUcd vpon. And why so ? Because the priest, saith he, is God's 
priest, and not theirs ; whereby he is bound to call upon God, 
and not upon them but I dare not (will some man 



GQ INVOCATION OF SAINTS. 

say) trouble GrOD at all times with my prayers ; we see that in 
king's houses, and courts of princes, men cannot be admitted, 
unless they first use the help and means of some special noble- 
man, to come to the speech of the king, and to obtain the thing 
that they would have. 

" Chbist, sitting in heaven, hath an everlasting priesthood, and 
always prayeth to His Father for them that be penitent, obtain- 
ing, by virtue of His wounds, whicli are evermore in the sight of 
God, not only perfect remission of our sins, but also all other ne- 
cessaries that we lack in this world ; so that this Holy Mediator 
is sufficient in heaven, and needeth no others to help Him. 

" Invocation is a thing proper unto GOD, which if we attribute 
unto the saints, it soundeth unto their reproach, neither can they 
well bear it at our hands. When Paul healed a certain lame man, 
which was impotent in his feet, at Lystra, the people would have 
done sacrifice unto him and Barnabas ; who, rending their clothes, 
refused it, and exhorted them to woiship the true God. Likewise 
in the Revelation, when St. John fell iefore the angeVs feet to xcor- 
ship him, the angel would not permit him to do it, but commanded 
him that he should worship God. Which examples declare unto 
us, that the saints and angels in heaven will not have us to do 
any honor imto them, t?iat is due and proper unto God." — Homily 
on Prayer, p. 272-277. 

"Whereas, then, it has already been shown tliat 
not all invocation is wTong, this last passage plain- 
ly tells us ivhat kind of invocation is not allowa- 
ble, or what is meant by invocation in its excep- 
tionable sense : viz., " a thing proper to God," as 
being part of the " honor that is due and proper 
unto God." And two instances are specially 
given of such calling and invocating, viz., sacri- 
ficing, and falling down in worship). Besides 
this, the Homilist adds, that it is wrong to pray 



INVOCATION 0¥ SAINTS. 67 

to them for " necessaries in tliis world," and to 
accompany their services with " piping, singing, 
chanting, and plajing" on the organ, and of in- 
voking saints as patrons of particular elements, 
countries, arts, or remedies. 

Here again, as before, the Article gains a wit- 
ness and concurrence from the Council of Trent. 
" Though," say the divines there assembled, " the 
Church has been accustomed sometimes to cele- 
brate a few masses to the honor and remembrance 
of saints, yet she doih not teach that sacrifice is 
offered to them^ but to God alone, who crowned 
them ; wherefore neither is the priest wont to say, 
loffer sacrifice Ilo thee^ O Peter, or O Paul, but 
to God." (Sess. 22.) 

Or, to know what is meant by fond invocations, 
we may refer to the following passage of Bishop 
Andrews's answer to Cardinal Perron : — 

" This one point is needful to be observed throughout all the 
Cardinal's answer, that he hath framed to himself five distinc- 
tions: — (1.) Prayer direct, and prayer ofci/^we, or indirect. (2.) 
Prayer absolute, and prayer relative. (3.) Prayer sovereign, and 
prayer subaltern. (4.) Prayer final, and prayer transitory. (5.) 
Prayer sacrificial, and prayer cmt of, or from the sacrifice. Prayer 
direct, absolute, final, sovei'eign, sacrificial, that must not be made 
to the saints, but to God only : but as for prayer oblique, rehtive, 
transitory, subaltej-n, from, or out of the sacrifice, that (saith he) we il 
may make to the saints. 

" For all the world, like the question in Scotland, which was 
made some fifty years since, wliether the Pater noster might not 
be said to saintv. For then thej' in like sort devised the distinc- 



68 INVOCATION OF SAINTS. ' 

tion of — (1.) Ultimate, etnon ultimate. {2.) Principaliter, etminus 
principaliter. (3.) Primarie, et secundarie : Capiendo striate, et ca- 
piendo large. And as for ultimate, principaliter, primarie, et capi- 
endo stricte, they concluded it must go to God ; but non ultimate, 
minus principaliter, secundarie, et capiendo large, it might be al- 
lowed saints. 

" Yet it is sure, that in these distinctions is the whole sub- 
stance of his answer. And whensoever he is pressed, he flees 
straight to his prayer relative and prayer transitory ; as if prier 
pour prier, were all the Church of Rome did hold ; and that they 
made no prayers to the saints, but only to pray for them. The 
Bishop well remembers, that Master Casaubon more than once 
told him that reasoning with the Cardinal, touching the invoca- 
tion of saints, the Cardinal freely confessed to him that he had 
never prayed to saint in all his life, save only when he happened to 
follow the procession; and that then he sung Ora pro nohis with 
the clerks indeed, but else not. 

" "Which Cometh much to this opinion he now seemeth to de- 
fend : but wherein others of the Church of Rome will surely give 
him over, so that it is to be feared that the Cardinal will be shent 
for this, and some censure come out against him by the Sorbonne. 
For the world cannot believe that oblique relative prayer is all that 
is sought ; seeing it is most evident, by their breviaries, hours, and 
rosaries, that they pray directly, absolutely, and finally to saints, 
and make no mention at all of prier pour prier, to pray to GOD to 
forgive them ; but to the saints, to give it themselves. So that 
all he sailh comes to nothing. They say to the blessed Virgin, 
'Sancta Maria,' not only ' Ora pro nobis;' but ' Succurre miseris, 
juva pusillanimes, resolve flebiles, accipe quod ofiferimus, dona 
quod rogamus, excusa quod timemus,' &c., &c 

" All whicli, and many more, show plainly that the practice of 
the Church of Rome, in this point of invocation of saints is far 
otherwise than Cardinal Perron would bear the world in hand ; 
and that prier pou.r prier, is not all, but that ' Tu dona coelum, Tu 
laxa, Tu sana, Tu solve crimina, Tu due, conduc, indue, perdue ad 
gloriam; Tu serva, Tu opem, Tu aufer, Tu confer vitam,' are said 



INVOCATION OF SAINTS. 69 

to them (totidem verbis) : more than which caniiot he said to God 
Himself. And again, ' Hie nos solvat a peccatis, Hie nostros 
tergat reatus, Hie arma conferat, Hie hostem fuget, Hasc guber- 
net, Hie aptet tuo conspectui ;' whicli if they be uot direct and 
absolute, it would be asked of them, what is absolute or direct ?" — 
Bishop Andrews's Ans^ver to Chapter XX. of Cardinal Perron's 
Reply, p. 5Y-62, 

Bellarmine's admissions quite bear out the prin- 
ciples laid down by Bishop Andrews and the 
Homilist : — 

"It is not lawful," he says, " to ask of the saints to grant to us, 
as if they were the authors of divine benefits, glory or grace, or 

the other means of blessedness This is proved, first, 

from Scripture, ' The Lord will give grace and glory.' . (Psalm 
bcxxiv.) Secondly, from the usage of the Church ; for in the 
mass-prayers, and the saints' ofDces, we never ask any thing else, 
but at their prayers, benefits may be granted to us by GoD. 
Thirdly, from reason ; for what we need surpasses the powers of the 
creature, and therefore even of saints ; therefore we ought to ask 
nothing of saints beyond their impotrating from God what is 
profitable for us. Fourthly, from Augustine and Theodoret, who 
expressly teach that saints are not to be invoked as gods, but as 
able to gain from God what they wish. However, it must be 
observed, when we say, that nothing should be asked of saints 
but their prayers for us, the question is not about the words, but 
the scTise of the words. For, as far as words go, it is lawful to 
say : ' St. Peter, pity me, save me, open for me the gate of 
heaven;' also, 'give me health of body, patience, fortitude,' &c., 
provided that we mean ' save and pity me by praijing for me ;' 
* grant me this or that by thy prayers and merits.^ For so speaks 
Gregory Nazianzen, and many others of the ancients," &c. — De 
Sanct. Beat, i. 17. 

[By the doctrine of the invocation of saints 



TO INVOCATIOJSr OF SAINTS. 

then, the Article means all maintenance of ad- 
dresses to them which intrench upon the incom- 
municable honors due to God alone, such as have 
been, and are in the Church of Rome, and such as, 
equally with the peculiar doctrine of purgatory, 
pardons, and worshipping and adoration of images 
and relics, as actually taught in that church, are 
unknown to the Catholic Church.] 

By consulting Browne on the Articles, a work published since 
the above was written, very clear explanations of the Articles 
will be found. 



THE SACRAMENTS. 71 



§ 7. — The Sacraments. 

Akticle XXY. — " Those five, commonly called 
Sacraments, that is to say, Confirmation, Pen- 
ance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, 
are not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gos- 
pel, being such as have grown, partly of the cor- 
rupt following (prava imitatione) of the Apostles, 
partly from states of life allowed in the Scrip- 
tures ; but yet have not like nature of sacraments 
(sacramentorum eandem rationem) with Baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, for that they have not 
any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God." 

This Article does not deny the five rites in 
question to be sacraments, but to be sacraments 
in the sense in which Baptism and the Lord's 
Supper are sacraments ; " sacraments of the Gos- 
j9eZ," sacraments with an outward sign ordained 
of God. 

They are not sacraments in any sense, unless 
the Church has the power of dispensing grace 
through rites of its own appointment, or is endued 
with the gift of blessing and hallowing the " rites 
or ceremonies" which, according to the twentieth 



72 THE SACRAMENTS. 

Article, it " hath power to decree." But we may 
well believe that the Church has this gift. 

If, then, a sacrament be merely an outioard sign 
of an invisible grace given under it, the five rites 
may be sacraments ; but if it must be an outward 
sign ordained hy God or Christ, then only Bap- 
tism and the Lord's Supper are sacraments. 

Our Church acknowledges both definitions; — 
in the Article before us, the stricter ; and again in 
the Catechism where a sacrament is defined to be 
" an outward visible sign of an inward spiritual 
grace, given unto us, ordained hy Christ Him- 
self.'''' And this, it should be remarked, is a char- 
acteristic of our formularies in various places, not 
to deny the truth or obligation of certain doctrines 
or ordinances, but simply to deny (what no Ro- 
man opponent now can successfully maintain), 
that Christ for certain directly ordained them. 
For instance, in regard to the visible Church it is 
sufiicient that the ministration of the sacraments 
should be ''^according to Christ's ordinance^ — 
Art. xix. And it is added, " in all those things 
that of necessity are requisite to the same." The 
question entertained is, what is the least that God 
requires of us. Again, " the baptism of young 
children is to be retained, as most agreeable to 
the institution of Christ."^ — Art. xxvii. Again, 
" the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by 
Christ's ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted 



THE SACRAMENTS. 73 

up, or worshipped." — Art. xxviii. "Wlio will 
maintain tlie paradox that what the Apostles " set 
in order when they came" had been already done 
by Christ? Again, "both parts of the Lord's 
sacrament, hy Christ's ordinance and command- 
ment^ ought to be administered to all Christian 
men alike." — ^Art. xxx. Again, " bishops, priests, 
and deacons, are not commanded hy God's law 
either to vow the estate of single life or to abstain 
from marriage." — Art. xxxii. [In making this 
distinction, however, it is not here insinuated, 
though the question is not entered on in these 
particular Articles, that every one of these points, 
of which it is only said that they are not ordained 
by Christ, is justifiable on grounds short of His 
appointment.] 

On the other hand, our Church takes the wider 
sense of the meaning of the word sacrament in the 
Homilies ; observing — 



" In the second Book against the Adversary of the Law and the 
Prophets, he [St. Augustine] calleth sacraments holy signs. And 
writing to Bonii'acius of the baptism of infants, he saith, ' If sacra- 
ments had not a certain similitude of tliose things whereof they 
be sacraments, they should be no sacraments at all. And of 
this similitude they do for the most parts receive the names of 
the self-same things they signify.' By these words of St. Augus- 
tine it .appeareth, that he alloweth the couimon description of a 
BBcramcnt, which is, that it is a visible sign of an invisible grace; 
that is to Bay, that setteth out to tlie eyes and other outward 
senses the inward working of God's free merer, and doth, as it 
4 



''H THE SACRAMENTS. 

were, seal in our hearts the promises of God." — Homily on Com- 
mon Prayer and Sacraments, pp. 29G, 297. 

Accordingly, starting with this definition of St. 
Augustine's, the writer is necessarily carried on as 
follows : — 

" You shall hear how many sacraments there be, that were in- 
stituted by our Saviour Christ, and are to be continued, and 
received of every Christian in due time and order, and for such 
purpose as our Saviour Christ willed them to bo received. And 
as for the number of them, if they should be considered accord- 
ing to the exact signification of a sacrament, namely, for visible 
signs expressly commanded in the Xew Testament, wherounto is 
annexed the promise of free forgiveness of our sins, and of our 
holiness and joining in Christ, there be but two ; namely. Bap- 
tism, and the Supper of the Lord. For although absolution hath 
the promise of forgiveness of sin ; yet by the express word of the 
New Testament, it hath not tliis promise annexed and tied to the 
visible sign, which is imposition of hands. For this visible sign 
(I mean laying on of hands) is not expressly commanded in the 
New Testament to bo used in absolution, as the visible signs in 
Baptism and the Lord's Supper are : and therefore, absolution is 
no such sacrament as Baptism and the Communion are. And 
though the ordering of ministers liath this visible sign and prom- 
ise ; yet it lacks the promise of remission of sin, as all other sacra- 
ments besides the two above named do. Therefore neither it, 
nor any other sacrament else, be such sacraments as Baptism and 
the Communion are. But in a general acceptation, the name of 
a sacrament may be attributed to any thing, whereby an holy 
thing is signified. In which understanding of the word, the an- 
cient writers have given this name, not only to the other five, 
commonly of late years taken and used for supplying the number 
of the seven sacraments ; but also tc divers and sundry other 
ceremonies, as to oil, washing of feet, and such like ; not mean- 
ing thereby to repute them as sacraments, in Oie same signijica- 



THE SACRAMENTS. 75 

tion that the two forenamed sacraments are. And therefore St. 
Augustine, weighing the true signification and exact meaning of 
the word, writing to Januarius, and also in the Third Book of 
Christian Doctrine, affirmeth, that the sacraments of the Chris- 
tians, as they are most excellent in signification, so are they most 
few in number, and in both places maketh mention expressly of 
two, the sacrament of Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord. 
And although there are retained by order of the Church of Eng- 
land, besides these two, certain other rites and ceremonies, about 
the institution of ministers in the Church, Matrimony, Confirma- 
tion of Children, by examining them of their knowledge in the 
Articles of the Faith, and joining thereto the prayers of the 
Church for them, and likewise for the Visitation of the Sick . 
yet no man ought to take these for sacraments, in such significa- 
tion and meaning as the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's 
Supper are : but eitlier for godly states of life, necessary in 
Christ's Church, and therefore worthy to be set forth by public 
action and solemnity, by the ministry of the Church, or else 
judged to be such ordinances as may make for the instruction, 
comfort, and edification of Christ's Church." — Homily on Com- 
mon Prayer and Sacraments, pp. 298-300. 

Another definition of the word sacrament, 
■which equally succeeds in limiting it to the two 
principal rites of the Christian Church, is also 
contained in the Catechism, as well as alluded to 
in the above passage : — " Two only, as generally 
necessary to salvation, Baptism and the Supper of 
the Lord." On this subject the following remark 
has been made : — 

" The Roman Catholic considers that there are 
seven [sacraments] ; we do not strictly determine 
the number. We define the word generally to be 
an 'outward sign of an inward grace,' without 



78 THE SACRAMENTS. 

saying to how many ordinances tliis applies. 
However, what we do determine is, that Cheist 
has ordained two special sacraments, as generally 
necessary to salvation. This, then, is the charac- 
teristic mark of those two, separating them from 
all other whatever ; and this is nothing else but 
saying in other words that they are the only jus- 
tifying rites, or instruments of communicating 
the Atonement, which is the one thing necessary 
to us. Ordination, for instance, gives power, yet 
without making the soul acceptable to Gon ; Con- 
firmation gives light and strength, yet is the mere 
completion of Baptism; and Absolution may be 
viewed as a negative ordinance removing the har- 
rier which sin has raised between us and that 
grace, which by inheritance is ours. But the two 
sacraments 'of the Gospel,' as they may be em- 
phatically styled, are the instruments of inward 
life, according to our Lokd's declaration, that 
Baptism is a new hirih, and that in the Eucharist 
we eat the living bread." 



TEANSUBSTANTIATION. If 



§ 8. — Transiibstantiation. 

Aeticle XXYIII. — " Transubstantiation, or 
the change of the substance of bread and wine, 
in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by 
Holy "Writ ; but is repugnant to the plain words 
of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a sacra- 
ment, and hath given occasion to many super- 
stitions." 

What is here opposed as "Transubstantia- 
tion," is the shocking doctrine that "the body 
of Cheist," as the Article goes on to express it, is 
not " given, taken, and eaten, after an heavenly 
and spiritual manner, but is carnally pressed with 
the teeth ;" that it is a body or substance of a cer- 
tain extension and bulk in space, and a certain 
figure and due disposition of parts, whereas we 
hold that the only substance such, is the bread 
which we see. 

This is plain from Article xxix., which quotes 
St. Augustine as speaking of the wicked as "car- 
nally and visibly pressing with their teeth the 
sacrament of the body and blood of Cheist," not 
the real substance, a statement which even the 



78 TEANSUBSTAISTTIATION. 

Breviary introduces into the service for Corpus 
Christi Day. 

This is plain also from the words of the Homily : 
— " Saith Cyprian, ' When we do these things, vae 
need not whet our teeth, but with sincere faith we 
break and divide that holy bread. It is well known 
that the meat we seek in this supper is spiritual 
food, the nourishment of the soul, a heavenly refec- 
tion, a7id not earthly • an invisible meat, and not 
a hodily : a ghostly substance, and not carnal? " 

Some extracts may be quoted to the same effect 
from Bishop Taylor. Speaking of what has been 
believed in the Church of Rome, he says : — 

"Sometimes Christ hath appeared in His own shape, and 
blood and flesh hath been pidled out of the mouths of the com- 
municants : and Plegihis, the priest, saw an angel, showing 
Christ to him in form of a child upon the altar, whom first he 
took in his arms and kissed, but did eat him up presently in his 
other shape, in the shape of a wafer. ' Speciosa certe pax nebu- 
lonis, ut qui oris prsebuerat basium, dentium inferret exitium,' 
said Berengarius : ' It was but a Judas's kiss to kiss with the lip, 
and bite with the teeth.' " — Bp. Tiujior, vol. x. p. 12. 

Again : — 

" Yet if this and the other miracles pretended, had not been 
illusions or directly fabulous, it had made very much against the 
present doctrine of the Roman Church ; for they represent the 
body in such measure, as by their explications it is not, and it can- 
not be ; they represent it broken, a finger, or a piece of flesh, or 
bloody, or bleeding, or in the form of an infant : and then, when 
it is in the species of bread : for if, as they say, Christ's body is 
present no longer than the form of bread remained, how can it 
be Chmst's body in the miracle, when tlie species being gone, it 



TEANSUBSTANTIATION. 7ft 

is no longer a sacrament ? But the dull inventors of miracles in 
those ages considered nothing of this ; the article itself was then 
gross and rude, and so were the instruments of probation. I 
noted this, not only to show at what door so incredible a persua- 
sion entered, but that the zeal of prevailing in it hath so blinded 
the refiners of it in this age, that tliey still urge these miracles 
for proof, when, if they do any thing at all, they reprove the 
present doctrine." — Bp. Taylofs Works, vol. ix. p. ccccxi. 

Again : tlie change wlii(.'li is denied in the 
Article is accurately specified in another passage 
of the same author : — 

" I will not insist upon the unworthy questions which this 
carnal doctrine introduces . . . neither will I make scrutiny con- 
cerning Christ's bones, hair, and nails ; nor suppose the Roman 
priests to be such Kapxa-py^ovm, and to have such ' saws in their 
mouths;' these are appendages of their persuasion, but to bo 
abominated by a]l Christian and modest persons, who use to 
eat not the bodies but the flesh of beasts, and not to devour, but 
to worship the body of Christ in the exaltation, and now in union 
with His divinity." — On the Real Presence, 11. 

And again : — 

" They that deny the spirittuil sense, and aflSrm the natural, are 
to remember that Christ reproved all senses of these words that 
were not spiritual. And by the way, let me observe, that the 
expressions of some chief men among the Romanists are so rude 
and crass, that it ivill be impossible to excuse them from the under- 
standing the words in the sense of the men of Capernaum ; for, as 
they understood Christ to mean His 'true flesh natural and 
proper,' so do they: as they thought Christ intended they 
should tear Him ivith their teeth and suck His blood, for which they 
were offended ; so do these men not only think so, but say so, 
and are not offended. So said Alauus, ' Assertissime loquiraur, 
corpus Christi vere a nobis contrectari, manducari, circumgestari, 
dentibus teri [jground by the teeth], sensibiliter sacrificari [sensibly 



80 TEANSUBSTANTIATIOI^. 

sacrificed}, non minus quam ante eonsecrationem panis' [not les3 
than the bread before consecration] .... I thought that the 
Romanists had been glad to separate their own opinion from the 
carnal conceit of the men of Capernaum and the offended disci- 
ples .... but I find that Bellarmine owns it, even in them, in 
their rude circumstances, for he affirms that 'Christ corrected 
them not for supposing so, but reproved them for not believing it to 
be so. And indeed himself says as much : " The body of Christ is 
truly and properly raanducated or chewed with the body in the 
Eucharist;' and to take off the foulness of the expression, by 
avoiding a worse, he is pleased to speak nonsense : ' A thing may 
be manducated or chewed, though it be not attrite or broken.' 
. . . But Bellarmine adds, that if you will not allow him to say so, 
then he grants it in plain terms, that Christ's body is chewed, is 
attrite, or broken with the teeth, and that not tropically, hut properly. 
. . . How? underthespeciesof bread, and invisibly." — Ibid., 3. 

Take again tlie statement, of Usslier: — 

"Paschasius Radbertus, who was one of the first setters for- 
ward of this doctrine in the "West, spendeth a large chapter rpon 
this point, wherein he telleth us, that Christ in the sacrament 
did show himself 'oftentimes in a visible shape, either in the 
form of a lamb, or in the color of flesh and blood ; so that while 
the host was a breaking or an offering, a lamb in the priest's 
hands, and blood in the chalice should be seen as it were flowing 
from the sacrifice, that what lay hid in a mystery might to them 
that yet doubted be made manifest in a miracle.' . . . The first 
[tale] was ... of a Roman matron, who found a piece of the 
sacramental bread turned into the fashion of a finger, all bloody; 
■which afterwards, upon the prayers of St. Gregory, was con- 
verted to its former shape again. The other two were first 
coined by the Grecian liars. . . . The former of these is not only 
related there, but also in the legend of Simeon Metaphrastes 
(which is such another author among the Grecians as Jacobus de 
Voragine was among the Latins), in the life of Arsenius, . . how 
that a little child was seen upon the altar, and an angel cutting 



TRANSUBSTANTIATION. -81 

him into small pieces with a knife, and receiving his blood into 
the chalice, as long as the priest was breaking the bread into 
little parts. The latter is of a certain Jew, receiving the sacra- 
ment at St. Basil's hands, converted visibly into true flesh and 
blood." — Ussher^s Answer to a Jesuit, pp. 62-64. 

Or the following : — 

" AVhen St. Odo was celebrating the mass in the presence of 
certain of the clergy of Canterbury (who maintained that the 
bread and wine, after consecration, do remain in their former 
substance, and are not Christ's true body and blood, but of a 
figure of it); when he was come to confractiou, presently the 
fragments of the body of Christ, which he held in his hands, 
began to pour forth blood into the chalice. Whereupon he shed 
tears of joy ; and beckoning to them that wavered in their faith, 
to come near and see tlie wonderful work of God ; as soon as 
they beheld it they cried out, ' holy Prelate I to whom tlae Sox 
of God lias been pleased to reveal Himself visibly in the flesh, 
pray for us, that the blood we see here present to our eyes, may 
again be changed, lest for our unbelief the Divine vengeance fall 
upon us.' He prayed accordingly; after which, looking in the 
chalice, he saw the species of bread and wine, where he had left 
blood. ... 

" St. "Wittekundup, in the administration of the Eucharist, saw 
a child enter into every one's mouth, playing and smiling when 
some received him, and with an abhorring countenance when he 
went into the mouths of others ; Christ thus showing this saiut 
in His countenance, who were worthy, and who unworthy re- 
ceivers." — Johnson's Miracles of Saints, pp. 27, 28. 

The same doctrine was imposed by Nicholas the 
Second on Berengarius, as the confession of the 
latter shows, which runs thus : — 

"I, Berengarius, . . . aiiathematiz eevery heresy, and more par- 
ticularly that of which I have hitherto been accused ... I agree 
with the Roman Church . . . that the bread and wine which are 

4* 



fi® TJRANSUBSTAITTIATIOIf. 

placed on the altar are, after consecration, not only a sacrament 
but even the true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ ; and 
that tliese are sensibly, and not merely sacramentally, but in 
truth, handled and broken by the hands of the priest, and ground 
by the teeth of the faithful." — Bowden^s Life of Gregory VII., vol. 
ii. p. 243. 

Another illustration of tlie sort of doctrine 
offered in the Article, may be given from Bellar- 
mine, whose controversial statements have already 
been introduced in the course of the above ex: 
tracts. He thus opposes the doctrine of intro- 
stisception, which the spiritual view of the Real 
Presence naturally suggests : — 

He observes, that there are "two particular 
opinions, false and erroneous, excogitated in the 
schools : that of Durandus, who thought it prob- 
able that the substance of the body of Christ in 
the Eucharist was without magnitude / and that 
of certain ancients, which Occam seems after- 
wards to have followed, that though it has magni- 
tude (which they think not really separable from 
substance), yet every part is so penetrated by 
every other, that the body of Christ is without 
figure, without distinction and order of parts." 
With this he contrasts the doctrine which, he 
maintains, is that of the Churcli of Rome as well 
as the general doctrine of the schools, that " in the 
Eucharist whole Christ exists with magnitude and 
all accidents, except that relation to a heavenly 
location which He has as He is in heaven, and 



TEAN8UBSTANTIATI0N. 03 

those things wliicli are concomitants on His exist- 
ence in that location; and that the parts and 
members of Christ's body do not penetrate each 
other, but are so distinct and arranged one with 
another, as to have a figure and order suitable to 
a human body. — De Eachar.^ iii. 5. 

"We see then, that, by transubstantiation, our 
Article does not confine itself to any abstract 
theory, nor aim at any definition of the word sub- 
stance, nor in rejecting it, rejects a word, nor in 
denying a "mutatio panis et vini," is denying 
every Tcind of cliange, but opposes itself to a cer- 
tain plain and unambiguous statement, not of this 
or that council, but one generally received or 
taught both in the schools and in the multitude, 
that the material elements are changed into an 
earthly, fleshly, and organized body, extended in 
size, distinct in its parts, which is there where the 
outward appearances of bread and wine are, and 
only does not meet the senses, nor even that 
always. 

Objections against " substance," " nature," 
" change," " accidents," and the like, seem more 
or less questions of words, and inadequate expres- 
sions of the great oftence which we find in the 
received Roman view of this sacred doctrine. 

In this connection it may be suitable to proceed 



84: TRANSUBSTANTIATION. 

to notice the Explanation appended to the Com- 
munion Service, of our kneeling at the Lord's 
Supper, which requires explanation itself, more 
perliaps than any part of our formularies. It runs 
as follows :— 

" Whereas it is ordained in this office for the 
Administration of the Lord's Supper, that the 
communicants should receive the same kneeling 
(which order is well meant, for a signification of 
our humble and grateful acknowledgment of the 
benefits of Christ therein given to all worthy re- 
ceivers, and for the avoiding of such profanation 
and disorder in the Holy Communion, as might 
otherwise ensue); yet, lest the same kneeling 
should by any persons, either out of ignorance and 
infirmity, or out of malice and obstinacy, be mis- 
construed and depraved, — it is hereby declared, 
that thereby no adoration is intended, or ought to 
be done, either unto the sacramental bread or 
wine there bodily received, or unto any corporal 
presence of Christ's natural flesh and blood. For 
the sacramental bread and wine remain still in 
their very natural substances, and therefore may 
not be adored (for that were idolatry, to be ab- 
horred of all faithful Christians) ; and the natural 
body and blood of our Saviour Christ are in 
heaven, and not here, it being against the truth 
of Christ's natural body to be at one time in 
more places than one." 



TRATifSUBSTANTIATIOlSr. 85 

Now it may be admitted without difficulty, — 
1. That "no adoration ought to be done unto 
the sacramental bread and wine there bodily re- 
ceived." 2. Nor " unto any corporal [?'. ^., carnal] 
presence of Cheist's natural flesh and blood." 3. 
That " the sacramental bread and wine remain 
still in their very natural substances." 4. That to 
adore them " were idolatry, to be abhorred of all 
faithful Christians;" and 5. That ''the natural 
body and blood of our Saviour Christ are in 
heaven." 

But to "heaven" is added, ^^ and not here.'''' 
Now, though it be allowed that there is no " cor- 
poral presence" [/. e., carnal] of " Christ's -natural 
flesh and blood" here, it is a further point to allow 
that " Christ's natural body and blood" are " not 
hereP And the question is, how can there be any 
presence at all of His body and blood, yet a pres- 
ence such, as not to be here f How can there be 
any presence^ yet not local ? 

Yet that this is the meaning of the paragraph 
in question is plain, from what it goes on to say 
in proof of its position : " It being against the 
truth of Christ's natural body to be at one time 
.in more places than one." It is here asserted, 
then, 1. Generally, "no nature body can be in 
more places than one ;" therefore, 2. Christ's nat- 
ural body cannot be in the bread and wine, or 
there where the bread and wine are seen. In 



86 TRANSUBSTANTIATIOIf. 

other words, there is no local presence in the Sa- 
crament. Yet, that there is a presence, is asserted 
in the Homilies, as quoted above, and the question 
is, as just now stated, " How can there be a pres- 
ence, yet not a local one ?" 

Now, first, let it be observed that the question 
to be solved is the truth of a certain philosophical 
deduction, not of a certain doctrine of Scripture. 
That there is a real presence, Scripture asserts, 
and the Homilies, Catechism, and Communion 
Service confess; but the Explanation before us 
adds, that it is philosophically impossible that it 
should be a particular kind of presence, a presence 
of which one can say, " It is here," or which is 
" local." It states then a philosophical deduction ; 
but to such deduction none of us have subscribed. 
We have professed in the words of the Canon : 
" That the Book of Prayer, «fec., containeth in it 
nothing contrary to the word of God." Now, a 
position like this may not be, and is not, " con- 
trary to the word of God," and yet need not be 
true ; e. g.^ we may accept St. Clement's Epistle 
to the Corinthians, as containing nothing contrary 
to Scripture, nay, as altogether most scriptural, 
and yet this would not hinder us from rejecting 
the account of the Phoenix, — as contrary, not to 
God's word, but to matter of fact. Even the 
infallibility of the Roman see is not considered to 
extend to matters of fact or points of philosophy. 



TEANSUBSTANTIATIOIS'. '87 

iNay, we commonly do not consider tliat we need 
take tlie words of Scripture itself literally about 
the sun's standing still, or the earth being fixed, 
or the firmament being above. Those at least 
who distinguish between what is theological in 
Scripture and what is scientific, and yet admit 
that Scripture is true, have no ground for wonder- 
ing at such persons as subscribe to a paragraph, of 
which at the same time they disallow the philoso- 
phy; especially considering they expressly sub- 
scribe it only as not " contrary to the word of 
God." This then is what must be said first of all. 
Next, the pliilosophical position is itself capable 
of a very specious defence. The truth is, we do not 
at all know what is meant by distance or intervals 
absolutely, any more than we know what is meant 
by absolute time. Late discoveries in geology have 
tended to make it probable that time may under 
circumstances go indefinitely faster or slower than 
it does at present ; or, in other words, that indefi- 
nitely more may be accomplished in a given portion 
of it. What Moses calls a day, geologists wish to 
prove to be thousands of years, if we measure time 
by the operations at present efiected in it. It is 
equally difficult to determine what we mean by 
distance, or why we should not be at this moment 
close to the throne of God, though we seem far 
from it. Our measure of distance is our hand or 
our foot ; but as an object a foot off is not called 



CO TRAN^SUBSTANTIATION. 

distant, though the interval is indefinitely divisible ; 
neither need it be distant either, after it has been 
multiplied indefinitely. Why should any conven- 
tional measure of ours — why should the perception 
of our eyes or our ears, be the standard of presence 
or distance? Cheist may really be close to us, 
though in heaven, and His presence in the Sacra- 
ment may but be a manifestation to the worshipper 
of that nearness, not a change of place, which may 
be unnecessary. But on this subject some extracts 
may be suitably made from a pamphlet published 
several yeai*s since, and admitting of one or two 
verbal corrections, which, as in the case of other 
similar quotations above, shall here be made with- 
out scruple : — 

"In the note at the end of the Communion 
Service, it is argued, that a body cannot be in two 
places at once ; and that therefore the Body of 
Christ is not loGolly present, in the sense in which 
we speak of the bread as being locally present. 
On the other hand, in the Communion Service 
itself, Catechism, Articles, and Homilies, it is 
plainly declared, that the Body of Christ is in a 
mysterious way, if not locally^ yet really present, 
so that we are able after some ineffable manner to 
receive It. Whereas, then, the objection stands, 
' Christ is not really here, because he is not locally 
here,' our formularies answer, ' He is really here, 
yet not locally.' 



TRATiiSUBSTANTIATION'. 99 

" But it may be asked, what is tlie meaning of 
saying that Christ is really present, yet not locally? 
I will make a suggestion on the subject. What 
do we mean by l>eing preHent ? How do we define 
and measure it ? To a blind and deaf man, that 
only is present which he touches : give him hearing, 
and the range of things present enlarges ; every 
thing is present to him which he hears. Give him 
at length sight, and the sun may be said to be 
present to him in the daytime, and mj-riads of 
stars by night. The presence, then, of a thing is a 
relative word, depending, in a popular sense of it, 
upon the channel of communication between it 
and him to whom it is present ; and thus it is a 
word of degree. 

" Such is the meaning oi preseriGe, when used of 
material objects ;—very diiferent from this is the 
conception we form of the presence of spirit with 
spirit. The most intimate presence we can fancy is 
a spiritual presence in the soul ; it is nearer to us 
than any material object can possibly be ; for our 
body, which is the organ of conveying to us the 
presence of matter, sets bounds to its approach 
towards us. If, then, spiritual beings can be 
brought near to us (and that tliey can, we know, 
from what is told us of the influences of Divine 
grace, and again of evil angels upon our souls), 
their presence is something sid generis^ of a more 
perfect and simple character than any presence we 



90 TEANSUBSTANTIATION. 

commonly call local. And further, their presence 
has nothing to do with the degrees of nearness : 
they are either present or not present, or, in other 
words, their coming is not measured by space, nor 
their absence ascertained by distance. In the case 
of things material, a transit through space is the 
necessary condition of approach and presence ; but 
in things spiritual (whatever be the condition), 
such a transit seems not to be a condition. The 
condition is unknown. Once more : while beings 
simply spiritual seem not to exist in place, the 
Incarnate Son does ; according to our Church's 
statement already alluded to, that 'the natural 
body and blood of our Saviour Christ are in 
heaven, and not here, it being against the truth 
of Christ's natural body to be at one time in 
more places than one.'' 

" Such seems to be the mystery attending our 
Lord and Saviour; He was a body, and that 
spiritual. He is in place; and yet, as being a 
Spirit, His mode of approach — the mode in which 
He makes Himself present here or there — may 
be, for what we know, as different from the mode 
in which material bodies approach and come, as a 
spiritual presence is more perfect. As material 
bodies approach by moving from place to place, 
so the approach and presence of a spiritual body 
may be in some other way, — probably is in some 
other way, since in some other way (as it would 



TRANSUBSTANTIATIOI?'. 9i 

appear), not gradual, progressive, approximating, 
that is, locomotive, but at once, spirits become 
present, — may be such as to be consistent with 
His remaining: on God's rio-ht hand while He be- 
comes present here, — that is, it may be real yet 
not local, or, in a word, is mysterious. The Body 
and Blood of Chkist may be really, literally 
present in the Holy Eucharist, yet not having 
become present by local passage, may still liter- 
ally and really be on God's right hand ; so that, 
though they be present in deed and truth, it may 
be impossible, it may be untrue to say, that they 
are literally in the elements, or about them, or in 
the soul of the receiver. These may be useful 
modes of speech according to the occasion ; but 
the true determination of all such questions may 
be this, that Cueist's Body and Blood are locally 
at God's right hand, yet really present here, — 
present here, but not here in place, — because they 
are spirit, 

" To assist our conceptions on this subject, I 
would recur to what I said just now about the 
presence of material objects, by way of putting my 
meaning in a different point of view. The presence 
of a material object, in the popular sense of the 
word, is a matter of degree, and ascertained by the 
means of apprehending it which belong to him to 
whom it is present. It is in some sense a correl- 
ative of the senses. A fly may be as near an 



981 TRANSUBSTANTIATION. 

edifice as a man ; yet we do not call it present to 
the fly, because it cannot see it ; and we call it 
present to the man because he can. This, however, 
is but a popular view of the matter : when we 
consider it carefully, it certainly is difficult to say 
what is meant by the presence of a material object 
relatively to us. It is in some respects truer to say 
that a thing is present, which is so circumstanced 
as to act upon us and influence us whether we are 
sensible of it or not. Now this is what the Catholic 
Church seems to hold concerning our Lokd's 
Presence in the Sacrament, that He then person- 
ally and bodily is with us in the way an object is 
which we call present : how He is so, we know 
not, but that He should be so, though He be mil- 
lions of miles away, is not more inconceivable than 
the influence of eyesight upon us is to a blind man. 
The stars are millions of miles off, yet they impress 
ideas upon our souls through our sight. We know 
of but five senses : we know not whether or not 
human nature be capable of more ; we know not 
whether or not the soul possesses any thing analo- 
gous to them. "We know nothing to negative the 
notion that the soul may be capable of having 
Chkist present to it by the stimulating of dormant, 
or the development of possible energies. 

" As sight for certain purposes annihilates space, 
so other unknown capacities, bodily or spiritual, 
may annihilate it for other purposes. Such a 



TRANSUBSTANTIATION. 90 

practical annihilation was involved in the appear- 
ance of Christ to St. Paul on his conversion. 
Such a practical annihilation was involved in the 
doctrine of Christ's ascension ; to speak according 
to the ideas of space and time commonly received, 
what must have been the rapidity of that motion 
by which, within ten days. He placed our human 
nature at the right hand of God ? Is it more 
mysterious that He should ' open the heavens,' to 
use the Scripture phrase, in the Sacramental rite ; 
that He should then dispense with time and space, 
in the sense in which they are daily dispensed 
with, in the sun's warming us at the distance of 
100,000,000 of miles, than that He should have 
dispensed with them on occasion of His ascending 
on high ? He who showed what the passage of an 
incorruptible body was ere it had reached God's 
throne, thereby suggests to us what may be its 
coming back and presence with us now, when at 
length glorified and become spirit. 

" In answer, then, to the problem, how Christ 
comes to us while remaining on high, I answer 
just as much as this, — that He comes by the 
agency of the Holt Ghost, in and hy the Sacra- 
•nieiit. Locomotion is the means of a material 
Presence; the Sacrament is the means of His 
spiritual Presence. As faith is the means of our 
receiving It, so the Holy Ghost is the Agent and 
the Sacrament the means of His imparting It; 



9i TEANSUBSTANTIATION. 

and therefore we call It a Sacramental Presence. 
"We kneel before His heavenly Throne, and the 
distance is as nothing ; it is as if that Throne were 
the Altar close to us. 

" Let it be carefully observed, that I am not 
proving or determining any thing ; I am only 
showing how it is that certain propositions which 
at first sight seem contradictions in terms, are not 
so, — I am but pointing out one way of reconci- 
ling them. If there is but one way assignable, the 
force of all antecedent objection against the pos- 
sibility of any at all is removed, and then of course 
there may be other ways supposable though not 
assignable. It seems at first sight a mere idle 
use of words to say that Christ is really and liter- 
ally, yet not locally, present in the Sacrament ; 
that He is there given to us, not in figure but in 
truth, and yet is still only on the right hand of 
God. I have wished to remove this seeming im- 
possibility. 

" If it be asked, why attempt to remove it, I 
answer that I have no wish to do so, if persons 
will not urge it against the Catholic doctrine. 
Men maintain it as an impossibility, a contradic- 
tion in terms, and force a believer in it to say 
why it should not be so accounted. And then 
when he gives a reason, they turn round and 
accuse him of subtleties, and refinements, and 
scholastic trifling. -Let them but believe and 



TEANSUBSTANTIATIOIS'. 95 

act on the truth that the consecrated bread is 
Christ's Body, as He says, and no officious com- 
ment on His words will be attempted by any 
well-judging mind. But when they say 'this 
cannot be literally true, hecause it is impossible;' 
then they force those who think it is literally true, 
to explain how, according to their notions, it is 
not impossible. And those who ask hard ques- 
tions must put up with hard answers." 

There is nothing, then, in the Explanatory- 
Paragraph which has given rise to these remarks, 
to interfere with the doctrine, elsewhere taught 
in our formularies, of a real super-local presence 
in the Holy Sacrament. 



96 MASSES. 



§ 9. — Masses. 

Article XXXI. — " The sacrifice (sacrificia) of 
Masses, in which it was commonly said, that the 
priests did offer Christ for the quick and the dead, 
to have remission of pain or guilt, were blas- 
phemous fables and dangerous deceits (perniciosae 
imposturse)." 

Nothing can show more clearly than this pas- 
sage, that the Articles are not written against the 
creed of the Roman Church, but against actual 
existing errors in it, whether taken into its sys- 
tem or not. Here the sacrifice of the Mass is not 
spoken of, in which the special question of doc- 
trine would be introduced ; but " the sacrifice of 
Masses,''^ certain observances, for the most part 
private and solitary, which the writers of the 
Articles knew to have been in force in time past, 
and saw before their eyes, and which involved 
certain opinions and a certain teaching. Accord- 
ingly the passage proceeds, " in which it was com- 
monly said;'''' which surely is a strictly historical 
mode of speaking. 

If any testimony is necessary in aid of what is 
so plain from the wording of the Article itself, it 



MASSES. 97 

is found in the drift of the following passage from 
Burnet : — 

" It were easy from all the rituals of the ancients to show, that 
they had none of those ideas that are now in the Roman Churcli. 
They had but one altar in a church, and probably but one in a 
city ; they had but one communion in a day at that altar : so far 
were they from the many altars in every cliurch, and the many 
masses at every altar, that are now in the Roman Church. They 
did not know what solitary masses were, without a communion. 
All the hturgics and all the writings of ancients are as express 
in this matter as is possible. The whole constitution of their 
worship and discipline shows it. Their worship always concluded 
with the Eucharist : such as were not capable of it, as the cate- 
chumens, and those who were doing public penance for their 
sins, assisted at the more general parts of the worship ; and so 
much of it was called their mass, because they were dismissed at 
the conclusion of it. When that was done, then the faithful 
stayed, and did partake of the Eucharist ; and at the conclusion 
of it they were likewise dismissed, from whence it came to be 
called the mass of the faithful." 

These sacrifices are said to be "blasphemous 
fables and pernicious impostures." Now the 
" blasphemous fable" is the teaching that there is 
a sacrifice for sin other than Cheist's death, and 
that masses are that sacrifice. And the " perni- 
cious imposture" is the turning this belief into 
a means of filthy lucre. 

1. That the " blasphemous fable" is the teach- 
ing that masses are sacrifices for sin distinct from 
the sacrifice of Cubist's death, is plain from the 
first sentence of the Article. "The oflfering of 



W MASSES. 

Christ once ?nade, is that perfect redemption, 
propitiation, and satisfaction for all the siiis of the 
whole world, hoth original and actual. And there 
is none other satisfaction for sin, but that alone. 
Wherefore the sacrifice of masses, &c." It is 
observable too that the heading of the Article 
runs, "Of the one oblation of Christ finished 
upon the Cross," which interprets the drift of the 
statement contained in it about masses. 

Our Communion Service shows it also, in which 
the prayer of consecration commences pointedly 
with a declaration, which has the force of a pro- 
test, that Christ .made on the cross " by His one 
oblation of Himself once offered, a full, jperfect^ 
and sujjicient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction 
for the sins of the whole world." 

And again in the offering of the sacrifice : " We 
entirely desire thy fatherly goodness mercifully to 
accept our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, 
most humbly beseeching Thee to grant that hy 
the inerits and death of Thy Son Jesus Christ, 
and through faith in His blood, we and all Thy 
whole Church may obtain remission of our sins 
and all other henefits of His Passion." 

[And in the notice of the celebration : " I pur- 
pose, through God's assistance, to administer to 
all Buch as shall be religiously and devoutly dis- 
posed, the most comfortable Saciament of the 
Body and Blood of Christ; to be by them re- 



MASSES. 99 

ceived in remembrance of His meritorious Cross 
and Passion ; whereby alone we obtain remission 
of our sins, and are made partakers of the king- 
dom of heaven."] 

But the popular charge still urged against the 
Koman system as introducing in the mass a second 
or rather continually recurring atonement, is a 
sufficient illustration, without further quotations, 
of this part of the Article. 

2. That the " blasphemous and pernicious im- 
posture" is the turning the Mass into a gain, is 
plain from such passages as the following : — 

" With what earnestness, with what vehement zeal, did our 
Saviour Christ drive the buyers and sellers out of the temple 
of Gou, and hurl down the tables of the changers of money, and 
the seats of the dove-sellers, and could not abide that a man 
should carry a vessel through the temple. He told them, that 
they had made His Father's house a den of thieves, partly 
through their superstition, hypocrisy, false worship, false doc- 
trine, and insatiable covetousness, and partly through contempt, 
abusing that place with walking and talking, with worldly mat- 
ters, without all fear of God, and due reverence to that place. 
What dens of thieves the churches of England have been made 
by the hlaspheinous buying and selling the most precious body and 
blood of Christ in the Mass, as the world was made to behove, at 
dirges, at months minds, at trentalls, in abbeys and chantries, 
besides other horrible abuses, (God's holy name be blessed for- 
ever I) which we now see and understand. All these abominations 
they that supply the room of Christ have cleansed and purged 
the churches of England of, taking away all such fulsomcness 
and liithiness, as through blind devotion and ignorance hath 
crept into the Church these many hundred years." — On repairing 
and keeping clean of Churches, pp. 229, 230. 



100 • MASSES. 

Other passages are as follows : — 

" Have not the Christians of late days, and even in our days 
also, in like manner provoked the displeasure and indignation of 
Almighty God ; partly because they have profaned and defiled 
their churches with heatlienism and Jewish abuses, with images 
and idols, with numbers of altars, too superstitiously and intol- 
erably abused, with gross abusing and filthy corrupting of the 
Lord's Holy Supper, the blessed Sacrament of His bodj' and 
blood, with an infinite number of toys and trifles of their own 
devices, to make a goodly outward show, and to deface the 
homely, simple, and sincere religion of Christ Jesus; partly> 
they resort to the church like hypocrites, full of all iniquity 
and sinful life, having a vain and dangerous fancy and persua- 
sion, that if they come to the church, besprinkle them witJi 
holy water, hear a mass, and be blessed with a chalice, though 
they understand not one word of the whole service, nor feel one 
motion of repentance in the heart, all is well, all is sure?" — On 
the Place and Time of Prayer, p. 293. 

Again : — 

"What hath been the cause of this gross idolatry, but the 
ignorance hereof? "What hath been the cause of this mummish 
massing, but the ignorance hereof? Yea, what hath been, and 
what is at this day the cause of this want of love and charity, 
but the ignorance hereof? Let us therefore so travail to under- 
stand the Lord's Supper, that we be no cause of tlie decay of 
God's worship, of no idolatry, of no dunib massing, of no hate 
and malice ; so may we the boldlier have access thither to our 
comfort." — Homily concerning the Sacrament, pp. 377, 378. 

To the same purpose is the following passage 
from Bishop Bull's Sermons : — 

" It were easy to show, how the whole frame of religion and 
doctrine of the Church of Rome, as it is distinguished from that 
Christianity which we liold in common with them, is evidently 



MASSES. jkOi 

designed and contrived to serve the interest and profit of them that 
rule that Church, by the disservices, yea, and ruin of those souls 

that are under their government What can the doctrine 

of men's playing an after-game for their salvation in purgatory 
be designed for, but to enhance the price of the priest's masses and 
dirges for the dead ? Why must a solitary mass, bought for a 
piece of money, performed and participated by a priest alone, in a 
private corner of a church, be, not only against the sense of 
Scripture and tlie Primitive Church, but also against common 
sense and grammar, called a communion, and be accounted use- 
ful to him that buj's it, though he never himself receive the 
sacrament, or but once a year ; but for this reason, that there is 
great gain but no godliness at all, in this doctrine?" — Bp. BuWs 
Sermons, p. 10. 

And Burnet says : — 

"Without going far in tragical expressions, we cannot hold 
saying what our Saviour said upon another occasion, ' My house 
is a house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves.' A 
trade was set up on this foundation. The world was made be- 
lieve, that by the virtue of so many masses, which were to be pur- 
chased bij great endoiuments, souls were redeemed out of purga- 
tory, and scenes of visions and apparitions, sometimes of the 
tormented, and sometimes of the delivered souls, were published 
in all places : which had so wonderful an effect, that in the two 
or three centuries, endoioments increased to so vast a degree, that 
if the scandals of the clergy on the one hand, and the statutes of 
mortmain on the other, had not restrained the profuseness that 
the world was wrought up to on this account, it is not easy 
to imagine lioiv far this might have gone; perhaps to an entire 
subjecting of the temporality to the spirituality. The practices 
by which this was raanngcd, and the effects that followed on 
it, we can call by no other name than downright impostures ; 
worse than the making or vending false coin ; when the world 
was drawn in by such arts to plain bargains, to redeem their own 
souls, and the souls of their ancestors and posterity, so many 



10^ MASSES. 

masb-es were to be said, and forfeitures to follow upon their not 
being said; thug the masses were reaily the price of the lands." 

The truth of these representations cannot be 
better shown than by extracting the following 
passage from the Session 22 of the Council of 
Trent: — 

" Whereas, many things appear to have crept in heretofore, 
whether by the fault of the times or by the neglect and wicked- 
ness of men, foreign to the dignity of so great a sacrifice, in 
order tliat it may regain to due honor and observance, to the 
glory of God and the edification of His faithful people, the Holy 
Council decrees, that the bishops, ordinaries of each place, dili- 
gently take care and be bound to forbid and put an end to all 
those things, which either avarice, which is idolatry, or irrever- 
ence, which is scarcely separable from impiety, or superstition, the 
pretence of true piety, has introduced. And, to say much in a 
few words, first of all, as to avarice, let them altogether forbid 
agreements and bargains oi payment of wliatever kind, and what- 
ever is given for celelraiing neiti masses ; moreover, importunate 
and mean extortion, rather than petition of alms, and such like 
practices, which border on simoniacal sin, certainly on yZZ^/i?/ lucre. 
.... And let them banish from the church those musical prac- 
tices, when with the organ or with the chant any thing lusciviuus or 
iinpure is mingled ; also all secular practices, vain and thereforo 
profane conversations, promenadings, bustle, clamor ; so that the 
house of God may truly seem and be called the house of prayer. 
Lastly, lest any opening be <;iven to superstitiop, let them pro- 
vide by edict and punishments appointed, that the priests cele- 
brate it at no other than the due hours, nor use rites or ceremo- 
nies and prayers in the celebration of masses, other than those 
which have been approved by the Church, and received on 
frequent and laudable use. And let them altogether remove 
from the Clmrch a set number of certain masses and candles, which 



MASSES. 108 

has proceeded rather from superstitious observance than from true 
religion, and teach the people in what consists, and from ■whom, 
above all, proceeds the so precious and heavenly fruit of this 
most holy sacrifice. And let them admonish the same people to 
come frequently to tlieir parish churches, at least on Sundays 
and tho greater feasts," &c. 

On the wliole, then, it is conceived that the 
Article before us neither speaks against the Mass 
in itself, nor against its being [an offering, though 
commemorative]* for the quick and the dead for 
the remission of sin [(especially since the decree 
of Trent says, that "the fruits of the Bloody 
Oblation are through this most abundantly ob- 
tained ; so far is the latter from detracting in any 
way from the former")] ; but against its being 
viewed, on the one hand, as independent of or 
distinct from the sacrifice on the Cross, which is 
blasphemy, and on the other, its being directed 
to the emolument of those to whom it pertains to 
celebrate it, which is imposture in addition. 

Fuller quotations might be taken from Browne on the Articles, 
but it is intended to reprint this just as the original, in which 
Bishop Browne's work could not be quoted, as it was not 
pubhshed. 

* " An offering for the quick," &c. — First Edition. 



104 MARRIAGE OF CLERGY. 



§ 10. — Marriage of Clergy. 

Aeticle XXXII. — " Bishops, Priests and Dea- 
cons, are not commanded by God's law, either to 
vow the estate of single life, or to abstain from 
marriage." 

There is literally no subject for controversy in 
these words, since even the most determined ad- 
vocates of the celibacy of the clergy admit their 
truth. [As far as clerical celibacy is a duty, it] 
is grounded not on God's law, but on the Church's 
rule, or on vow. ISTo one, for instance, can ques- 
tion the vehement zeal of St. Jerome in behalf of 
this observance, yet he makes the following ad- 
mission in his attack upon Jovinian : — 

" Jovinian says, ' You speak in vain, since tlie Apostle ap- 
pointed Bishops, and Presbyters, and Deacons, the husbands of 
one wife, and having children.' But, aa the Apostle says, that 
he has not a precept concerning virgins, yet gives a counsel as 
having received mercy of the Lord, and urges throughout that 
discourse a preference of virginity to marriage, and advises what 
he does not command, lest he seem to cast a snare, and to impose 
a burden too great for man's nature ; so also, in ecclesiastical 
order, seeing that an infant Church was then forming out of the 
Gentiles, he gives the lighter precepts to recent converts, lest 
they should fall under them through fear." — Adv. Jovinian, i. 34. 

And the Council of Trent merely lays down : — 

" If any shall say that clerks in holy orders, or regulars, who 



MAEEIAGE OF CLERGY. 105 

have solemnly professed chastity, can contract matrimony, and 
that the contract is vahd, in spiti of ecclesiastical law or vow, let 
him be anathema " — Sess. 24, Can. 9. 

Here the observance is placed simply upon rule 
of the Church or upon vow, neither of which 
exists in the English Church ; " therefore,'''' as the 
Article logically proceeds, " it is lawful for them, 
as for all other Christian men, to marry at their 
010 n discretion, as they shall judge the same to 
serve better to godliness." Our Church leaves 
the discretion with the clergy ; and most persons 
will allow that, under our circumstances, she acts 
wisely in doing so. That she has power, did she 
so choose, to take from them this discretion, and 
to oblige them either to marriage [(as is said to be 
the case as regards the parish priests of the Greek 
Church)] or to celibacy, would seem to be in- 
volved in the doctrine of the following extract 
from the Homilies ; though, whether an enforce- 
ment either of the one or the other rule would be 
expedient and pious, is another matter. Speaking 
of fasting, the Homily says : — 

" God's Church ought not, neither may it be so tied to that or 
any other order now made, or hereafter to be made and devised 
by the authority of man, but that it may lawfully, for just causes 
alter, change, or mitigate those ecclesiastical decrees and orders, 
yea, recede wholly from them and break them, when they tend either 
to superstition or to impiety, when they draw the people from GOD 
rather than work any edification in them. This authority Christ 
Himself used and left it to His Church, lie used it, I say, for tha 

5* 



106 MAREIAGE OF CLERGY. 

order or decree made by the elders for washing ofttimes, which 
was dihgently obsen^ed of the Jews; yet tending to super- 
stition, our Saviour Christ altered and changed the same in Ilis 
Church into a profitable sacrament, the sacrament of our regen- 
eration or new birth. This authority to mitigate laws and decrees 
ecclesiastical, the Apostles practised, when they, writing from 
Jerusalem unto the congregation tJiat was at Antioch, signified 
unto them tliat they would not lay any further burden upon 
them, but these necessaries : tliat is, ' that they should abstain 
from tilings offered unto idols, from blood, from that which is 
strangled, and from fornication;' notwithstanding that Moses's 
law required many other observances. Tiiis authority to change 
the orders, decrees, and constitutions of the Church was after 
the Apostles' time, used of the Fathers about the manner of fast- 
ing, as it appeareth in tlie Tripartite History . . . Thus ye have 
heard, good people, first, that Christian subjects are bound even 
in conscience to obey princes' laws, which are not repugnant to 
the laws of God. Ye have also hoard that Christ's Church is 
not so bound to observe any order, law, or decree made by man, 
to prescribe a form in religion ; but that the Church hath full 
power and authority from God to change and alter the same, 
when need shall require; wluch hath been showed you by the 
example of our Saviour, Curist, by the practice of the Apos- 
tles, and of the Fathers since that time." — Homily on Fasting, 
242-244. 

To the same effect the 34th Article declares that, 

" It is not necessary that traditions and ceremonies be in all 
places one, and utterly like; for at aU times they have been 
divers, and may be changed according to diversities of countries, 
times, and men's manners, so that nothing be ordained against 
God's "Word. Whosoever, throwjh his private judgment, willingly 
and purposely doth openly break the traditions and ceremonies 
of tlie Church, which be not repugnant to the word of God, and 
be ordained and approved by common authority, ought to be 
rebuked openly."— .4rfa:c;c XXXIV. 



THE HOMILIES. 107 



§ 11. — The Homilies. 

Aeticle XXXY. — " The second Book of Hom- 
ilies doth contain a godly and wholesome doctrine, 
and necessary for these times, as doth the former 
Book of Homilies." 

This Article has been treated of in ^o. 82 of 
these Tracts, in the course of an answer given to 
an opponent, who accused its author of not fairly 
receiving the Homilies, because he dissented from 
their doctrine, that the Bishop of Rome is Anti- 
christ, and that regeneration was vouchsafed under 
the law. The passage of the Tract shall here be 
inserted, with some abridgment. 

" I say plainly, then, I have not suhscrihed the 
Homilies, nor was it ever intended that any mem- 
ber of the English Church should be subjected 
to what, if considered as an extended confession, 
would indeed be a yoke of bondage. Romanism 
surely is innocent, compared with that system 
which should impose upon the conscience a thick 
octavo volume, written flowingly and freely by 
fallible men, to be received exactly, sentence by 
sentence : I cannot conceive any grosser instance 



108 THE ]IO]\riLIES. 

of a Pharisaical tradition tlian tliis would be. No ; 
sucli a proceeding would render it impossible (I 
will say) for any one member, lay or clerical, of the 
Church to remain in it, who w\as subject to such 
an ordeal. For instance : I do not suppose that 
any reader would be satisfied with the political 
reasons for fasting, though indirectly introduced, 
yet fully admitted and dwelt upon in the Homily 
on that subject. He would not like to subscribe 
the declaration that eating fish was a duty, not 
only as being a kind of fasting, but as making 
provisions cheap, and encouraging the fisheries. 
He would not like the association of religion with 
earthly politics. 

"How, then, are we bound to the Homilies? 
By the Thirty-fifth Article, which speaks as fol- 
lows : ' The second Book of Homilies . . . doth 
contain a godly and wholesome doctrine^ and 
necessary for these times, as doth the former Book 
of Homilies.^ Now, observe, this Article does 
not speak of every statement made in them, but 
of the ' doctrine^ It speaks of the view or cad^ 
or hodij of doctrine contained in them. In spite 
of ten thousand incidental propositions, as in any 
large book, there is, it is obvious, a certain line of 
doctrine, which may be contemplated continu- 
ously in its shape and direction. For instance : 
if you say you disapprove the doctrine contained 
in the Tracts for the Times, no one supposes you 



THE HOMILIES. 109 

to mean that every sentence and half sentence is 
a lie. I say then, that, in like manner, when the 
Article speaks of the doctrine of the Homilies, it 
does not measure the letter of them by the inch, 
it does not imply that they contain no proposi- 
tions which admit of two opinions; but it speaks 
of a certain determinate line of doctrine, and 
moreover adds, it is ' necessary for these times.'' 
Does not th is, too, show the same thing ? If a 
man said, the Tracts for the Times are scawnahle 
at this moment, as their title signifies, would he 
not speak of them as taking a certain line, and 
bearing in a certain way? Would he not be 
speaking, not of phrases or sentences, but of a 
' doctrine' in them tending one way, viewed as a 
whole ? Would he be inconsistent, if, after prais- 
ing them as seasonable, he continued, ' yet I do 
not pledge myself to every view or sentiment ; 
there are some things in them hard of digestion, 
or overstated, or doubtful, or subtle V 

" If any thing could add to the irrelevancy of 
the charge in question, it is the particular point 
in which it is urged that I dissent from the Hom- 
ilies, — a question concerning the fulfilment of 
.prophecy, viz., whether Papal Home is Antichrist ! 
An iron yoke indeed you would forge for the 
conscience, when you oblige us to assent, not only 
to all matters of doctrine which the Homilies con- 
tain, but even to their opinion concerning the 



110 THE HOMILIES. 

fiilfilment of prophecy. Why, vj<3 do not ascribe 
authority in such matters even to the unanimous 
consent of all the Fathers. 

" I will put what I have been saying in a second 
point of view. The Homilies are subsidiary to 
the Articles ; therefore they are of authority so far 
as they bring out the sense of the Articles, and 
are not of authority where they do not. For 
instance, they say that David, though unbaptized, 
was regenerated, as you have quoted. This state- 
ment cannot be of authority, because it not only 
does not agree, but it even disagrees, with the 
Ninth Article, which translates the Latin word 
* renatis' by the English ' baptized.' But, observe, 
if this mode of viewing the Homilies be taken, as 
it fairly may, you suffer from it; for the Apoc- 
rypha, heing the subject of an Article, the com- 
ment furnished in the Homily is binding on you, 
whereas you reject it. 

"A further remark will bring us to the same 
point. Another test of acquiescence in the doc- 
trine of the Homilies is this : — Take their table 
of contents ; examine the headings ; these surely, 
taken together, will give the substance of their 
teaching. Now I hold fully and heartily the doc- 
trine of the Homilies, under every one of these 
headings : the only points to which I should not 
accede, nor think myself called upon to accede, 
would be certain matters, subordinate to the doc- 



THE HOMILIES. Ill 

trines to wliich the headings refer — ^matters not 
of doctrine, but of opinions, as, that Rome is the 
Antichrist ; or of historical fact, as, that there 
was a Pope Joan. But now, on the other hand, 
can you subscribe the doctrine of the Homilies 
under every one of its formal headings ? I believe 
you ca/tmot. The Homily against Disobedience 
and Wilful Rebellion is, in many of its element- 
ary principles, decidedly uncongenial with your 
sentiments," 

This illusti'ation of the subject may be thought 
enough ; yet it may be allowable to add from the 
Homilies a number of propositions and statements 
of more or less importance, which are too much 
forgotten at this day, and are decidedly opposed 
to the views of certain schools of religion, which 
at the present moment are so eager in claiming 
the Homilies to themselves. This is not done, as 
the extract already read will show, with the inten- 
tion of maintaining that they are one and all 
binding on the conscience of those who subscribe 
the Thirty-fifth Article ; but since the strong lan- 
guage of the Homilies against the Bishop of Rome 
is often quoted, as if it were thus proved to be the 
doctrine of our Church, it may be as well to show 
that, following the same rule, we shall be also 
introducing Catholic doctrines, which indeed it 
far more belongs to a Church to profess than a 
certain view of prophecy, but which do not ap- 



112 THE HOMILIES. 

prove themselves to those who hold it. For in- 
stance, we read as follows : — 

1. " The great clerk and godly preacher, St. 
John Clirysostom." — 1 B. i, 1. And, in like man- 
ner, mention is made elsewhere of St. Augustine, 
St, Ambrose, St. Hilary, St. Basil, St, Cyprian, 
St. Hierome, St. Martin, Origen, Prosper, Ecu- 
menius, Photius, Bernardus, Anselra, Didymus, 
Theophylactus, Tertullian, Athanasius, Lactantius, 
Cyrillus, Epiphanius, Gregory, Irenaeus, Clemens, 
Rabanus, Isidorus, Eusebius, Justinus Martyr, 
Optatus, Eusebius, Emissenus, and Bede. 

2. " Infants, being baptized, and dying in their 
infancy, are by this Sacrifice washed from their 
sins . . . and they, which in act or deed do sin 
after this baptism, when they turn to God un- 
feignedly, they are likewise washed by this Sacri- 
fice," &c. — 1 B. iii. 1. init. 

3. " Our oflice is, not to pass the time of this 
present life unfruitfully and idly, after that we are 
baptised or justified,''^ &c. — 1 B. iii. 3. 

4. " By holy promises, we be made lively mem- 
bers of Christ, receiving the sacrament of Baptism. 
By like holy promises the sacrament of Matrimony 
knitteth man and wife in perpetual love." — 1 B. 
vii. 1. 

5. " Let us learn also here [in the Book of Wis- 
dom] by tlie infallible and undeceivable Word of 
God, that," &c.— 1 B. x. 1. 



THE HOMILIES. 113 

6. " The due receiving of His blessed Body 
and Blood, under the form of bread and wine." — 
Note at end of B. i. 

Y. " In the Primitive Church, which icas most 
holy and godly . . . open oiienders "were not suf- 
fered once to enter into the house of the Lord . . . 
until they had done open penance . . . but this 
was practised, not only upon mean persons, but 
also upon the 7nch, noble ^ and mighty j)ersons^ 
yea, upon Theodosius, that puissant and mighty 
Emperor^ whom .... St. Ambrose .... did .... 
excommunicate." — 2 B, i. 2. 

8. " Open offenders were not . . . admitted to 
common prayer, and the use of the holy sacra- 
TnentsP — Ihid 

9. " Let us amend this our negligence and con- 
tempt in coming to the house of the Loed ; and 
resorting thither diligently together, let us there 
. . . celebrating also reverently the Loed's holy 
sacraments^ serve the Loed in His holy house." — 
Ihid. 5. 

10. " Contrary to the . . . most manifest doc- 
trine of the Scriptures, and contrary to the usage 
of the Primitive Church, which was most pure 
and uncorrupt^ and contrary to the sentences and 
judgments of the most ancient^ learned, and godly 
doctors of the Church." — 2 B. ii. 1, init. 

11. " This truth . . . was believed and taught 
by the old holy Fathers^ and most ancient learned 



114 THE HOMILIES. 

doctors, and received bj the old Primitive Giurch, 
which was most uncorrupt and pure. ''^ — 2 B. ii. 2, 
init. 

12. " Atlianasius, a very ancient, holy, and 
learned bishop and doctor." — I7jid. 

13. " Cyrillus, an old and holy doctor." — Ihid. 

14. " Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamine, in Cy- 
prus, a very holy and learned man/' — Ihid. 

16. " To whose (Epiphanius's) judgment you 
have ... all the learned and godly bishops and 
clerks, yea, and the whole Church of that age" 
[the Nicene], " and so upward to our Saviofe 
Christ's time, by the space of about four hundred 
years, consenting and agreeing." — Ihid. 

16. " Epiphanius, a bishop and doctor of such 
antiquity, holiness, and authority." — Ihid. 

17. " St. Augustine, the best learned of all 
ancient doctors." — Ihid. 

18. " That ye may know why and when, and by 
whom images were first used privately, and after- 
wards not only received into Christian churches 
and temples, but, in conclusion, worshipped also ; 
and how the same was gainsaid, resisted, and 
forbidden, as well by godly hishops and learned 
doctors, as also by sundry Christian princes, I 
will briefly collect," <fec. [The bishops and doc- 
tors which follow are :] " St. Jerome, Serenus, 
Gregory, the Fathers of the Council of Eliberis." 

19. " Constantine, Bishop of Eome, assembled 



i 



THE HOMILIES. 115 

a Council of bishops of tlie "West, and did con- 
demn Philippicus, the Emperor, and John, Bishop 
of Constantinople, of the heresy of the Monothel- 
ites, not without a cause indeed, but very justly ^ 
—Ihid. 

20. '^ Those six Councils, which were allowed 
and received of all 7nenr — Ihid. 

21. " There were no images publicly by the 
space of almost seven hundred years. And there 
is no doult but the Primitive Church, next the 
Apostles' times, was most jpure.-'' — Ihid. 

22. " Let us beseech God that we, being warned 
by His Holy Word . . . and by the writings of old 
godly doctors and ecclesiastical histories," &c. — 
Ihid. 

23. " It shall be declared, both by God's Word, 
and the sentences of the ancient doctors, and judg- 
ment of the Primitive Church," «&:c. — 2 B. ii. 3. 

24. "Saints, whose souls reign in joy with 
God."— /^V7. 

25. "That the law of God is likewise to be 
understood against all our images . . . appeareth 
further by ih& judgment of the old doctors and 
the Primitive Church." — Ihid. 

26. " The Primitive Church, which is specially 
to he followed, as most incorrupt and pure." — i 
Ihid. 

27. " Thus it is declared by God's Word, the 
sentences of the doctors, and the judgment of the 
Primitive Church." — Ihid. 



116 THE HOMILIES. 

28. " The rude people, who specially, as the 
Scripture teaclieth, are in danger of superstition 
and idolatry ; viz., Wisdom xiii. xiv." — Ihid. 

29. " They [the ' learned and holy bishops and 
doctors of the Chnrcli' of the first eight centuries] 
were the preaching bishops . . . And as they were 
most zealous and diligent, so were they of excel- 
lent learning and godliness of life, and by both of 
great authority and credit with the people." — 
Ihid. 

30. " The most virtuous and best learned, the 
most diligent also, and in number almost infinite, 
ancient Fathers, bishops, and doctors .... could 
do nothing against images and idolatry." — Ihid. 

31. " As the Word of God testifieth, Wisdom 
xiv." — Ihid. 

32. " The saints now reigning in heaven with 
God."— /J«¥. 

33. ^'' The fountain of our generation is there 
[in God's house] presented unto us." — 2 B. iii. 

36. " Somewhat shall now be spoken of one 
particular good work, whose commendation is 
both in the law and in the Gospel [fasting]." — 2 
B. iv. 1. 

37. " If any man shall say . . . we are not now 
under the yoke of the law, we are set at liberty 
by the freedom of the Gospel; therefore these rites 
and customs of the old law bind not us, except 
it can be showed by the Scriptures of the New 



THE HOMILIES. 117 

Testament or by examples out of the same, that 
fasting, now under the Gospel, is a restraint of 
meat, drinli, and all hodily food and j^l^cisures 
from the hodij, as before : first, that we ought to 
fast, is a truth more manifest, than it should here 
need to he proved . . . Fasting, even by Christ's 
assent, is a withholding meat, drink, and all natu- 
ral food from the body," &c. — Ibid. 

38. " That it [fasting] was used in the Primi- 
tive Church, appeareth most evidently by the 
Chalcedon Council, one of the four first general 
councils. The Fathers assembled there . . . decreed 
in that council that every person, as well in his 
private as public fast, should continue all the day 
without meat and drink, till after the evenins: 
prayer. . . . This Canon teacheth how fasting 
was used in the Primitive Church." — Ibid. [The 
Council was A. D. 452.] 

39. " Fasting then, by the decree of those 630 
Fathers, grounding their determinations in this 
matter upon the sacred Scriptures ... is a with- 
holding of meat, drink, and all natural food from 
the body for the determined time of fasting." — 
Ibid. 

40. " The order or decree made by the elders 
for washing ofttimes, tending to superstition, our 
Saviouk Christ altered and changed the same in 
His Church, into a profitable sacrament, the sac- 
rament of our regeneration or 7iew hirthP — 2 B. 
iv. 2. 



118 THE HOMILIES. 

41. ■ " Fasting thus used witli prajer is of great 
efficacy and weigheth mucJt witli God, so the angel 
Eaphael told Tobias."— /i?^. 

42. "As he" [St. Augustine] "witnesseth in 
another place, the martyrs and holy men in times 
past, were wont after their death to be remem- 
hered and named of the priest at divine service ; 
but never to be invocated or called upon." — 2 B. 
vii. 2. 

43. " Thus you see that the autliority hoik of 
Scripture and also of Augustine, doth not permit 
that we should pray to them." — Ihid. 

44. " To temples have the Christians custora- 
ably used to resort from time to time as to most 
meet places, where they might . . . receive His 
holy sacraments ministered unto them duly and 
purely." — 2 B. viiL 1. 

45. " The which thing both Chkist and His 
Apostles, with all the rest of the holy Fathers^ do 
sufficiently declare so." — Ihid. 

46. " Our godly predecessor^ and the ancient 
Fathers of the Primitive Church, spared not their 
goods to build churches." — Ihid. 

4:7. " If we will show ourselves true Christians, 
if we will be followers of Christ our Master, and 
of those godly Fathers that have lived before us, 
and now have received the reward of true and 
faithful Christians," &c. — Ihid. 

48. "We must . . . come unto the material 



THE HOMILIES. 119 

cliurclies and temples to pray .... whereby we 
may reconcile ourselves to God, be partakers of 
Ilis holy sacratnents^ and be devout hearers of 
His holy word," &c. — Ihid. 

49. " It [ordination] lacks the promise of re- 
mission of sin, as all other sacraments besides the 
two above named do. Therefore, neither it, nor 
any other sacrament else, be such sacraments as 
Baptism and the Communion are." — 2 Horn. ix. 

50. " Thus we are taught both by the Scrip- 
tures and ancient doctors, that," &c. — Ibid. 

51. " The holy x^postles and disciples of Christ 
. . . the godly Fathers also, that were both before 
and since Cheist, endued without doubt with the 
Holt Ghost, . . . they both do most earnestly 
exhort us, <fec. . . . that we should remember the 
poor ... St. Paul crieth unto us after this sort 
. . . Isaiah the Prophet teacheth us on this 
wise .... And the holy Father Tobit giveth this 
counsel . . . And the learned and godly doctor 
Chrysostom^ giveth this admonition . . . But 
what mean these often admonitions and earnest 
exhortations of the Prophets, Apostles, Fathers, 
and holy doctors?"— 2 B. xi. 1. 

52. " The holy Fathers, Job and Tobit:'— Ibid. 

53. "Christ, whose especial /avor we maybe 
assured by this means to obtain''' [viz., by alms- 
giving]. — 2 B. xi. 2. 

64. "Now will I . . . show unto you \iow jprojitor 



120 THE HOMILIES. 

hie it is for us to exercise tliem [alms-deeds] . . . 
[Cheist's saying] serveth to . . . prick us forwards 
... to learn . . . Jww we may recover our health, 
if it be lost or impaired, and how it may be de- 
fended and maintained if we have it. Yea, He 
teacheth us also therefore to esteem that as a pre- 
cious medicine and an inestimable jewel, that hath 
such strength and virtue in it, that can eiXh^r pro- 
cure or preserve so incomparable a treasure." — 
Ihid. 

55. " Then He and His disciples were grievously 
accused of the Pharisees, . . . because they went 
to meat and washed not their hands before, . . . 
Christ, answering their superstitious complaint, 
teacheth them an especial remedy how to keep 
clean their souls, . . . Give alms," &c. — Ihid. 

56. " Merciful alms-dealing is jpra/??faJ/e io purge 
the soul from the infection and filthy spots of 
sin^ — Il)id. 

57. "■ The same lesson doth the Holy Ghost teach 
in sundry places of the Scripture, saying, ' Merci- 
fulness and alms-giving,' &c. [Tobit iv.] . . . The 
wise preacher, the son of Sirach, confirmeth the 
same, wlien he says, that 'as water quencheth 
burning fire,' " &c. — Ihid. 

68. "A great confidence may they have before 
the high God, that show mercy and compassion to 
them that are afflicted." — Ibid. 

59. " If ye have by any infirmity or weakness 



THE HOMILIES. 121 

been touched and annoyed with them . . . straight- 
way shall mercifulness wipe and wash them away, 
as salves and remedies to heal their sores and 
grievous diseases^ — Tbid. 

60. "And therefore that holy Father Cyprian 
admonisheth to consider how wholesome and 

prqfitahle it is to relieve the needy, &c by 

the which we may purge our sins and heal our 
wounded souls^ — Ibid. 

61. "We be therefore v:ashed in our baptism 
from the fiUhiness of sin, that we should live 
afterwards in the pureness of life." — 2 B. xiii. 1. 

62. " By these means [by love, compassion, &c.] 
shall we move God to be merciful to our sins^ — 
Ibid. 

63. "'He was dead,' saith St. Paul, 'for our 
sins, and rose again for our justification^ . . . He 
died to destroy the rule of the devil in us, and He 
rose again to send down His Holy Spirit to rule 
in our hearts, to endue us with perfect i^ighteous- 
nessP — 2 B. xiv. 

64. " The ancient Catholic Fathers,^'* [in marg.] 
Irenseus, Ignatius, Dionysius, Origen, Optatus, 
Cyprian, Athanasius, ..." were not afraid to call 
this supper, some of them, the salve of immor- 
tality and sovereign preservative against death ; 
other, the sweet dainties of our Saviour, the pledge 
of eternal health, the defence of faith, the hope 
of the resurrection ; other, the food of immor- 

6 



122 THE HOMILIES. 

tality, the healthful grace, and the conservatory 
to everlasting life." — 2 B. xv. 1. 

C5. " The meat we seek in this snpper is spirit- 
ual food, the nourislunent of our soul, a heavenly 
refection, and not earthly ; an invisible meat, and 
not bodily ; a ghostly substance, and not carnal." 
—Ibid. 

66. " Take this lesson ... of Emissenus, a godly 
Father that .... thou look up with faith upon the 
holy body and blood of thy God, thou marvel with 
reverence, thou touch it with thy mind, thou re- 
ceive it with the hand of thy heart, and thou take 
it fully with thy inward man." — Ibid. 

67. "The saying of the holy mart}T of God, 
St. Cyprian."— 2 B. xx. 3. 

. Thus we see the authority of the Fathers, of the 
six first councils, and of the judgments of the 
Church generally, the lioliness of the Primitive 
Church, the inspiration of the Apocrypha, the 
sacramental character of Marriage and other ordi- 
nances, the Real Presence in the Eucharist, the 
Church's power of excommunicating kings, the 
profitableness of fasting, the j^ropitiatory virtue of 
good works, the Eucharistic commemoration, and 
justification by a righteousness [within us],""' are 
taught in the Homilies. Let it be said again, it 
is not here asserted that a subscription to all and 

* "By inherent righteousness." — Fint Edition, 



THE HOMILIES. 123 

every of tliese quotations is involved in the sub- 
scription of an Article whicli does but generally 
approve the Homilies; but they who insist so 
strongly on our Church's holding that the Bishop 
of Kome is Antichrist because the Homilies de- 
clare it, should recollect that there are other doc- 
trines contained in them, beside it, which they 
should be understood to hold,, before their argu- 
ment has the force of consistency. 



124 THE BISHOP OF EOME. 



§ 12. — Tlie Bishop of Rome. 

Aeticle XXXYIII.— " The Bishop of Eome 
hath no jurisdiction in this realm of England." 

By "hath" is meant "ought to have," as the 
Article in the 36th Canon and the Oath of Su- 
premacy show, in which the same doctrine is 
drawn out more at length. " No foreign prince, 
person, prelate^ state or potentate, hath, or ought 
to have, any jurisdiction, power, superiority, pre- 
eminence, or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, 
within this realm." 

This is the profession which every one must in 
consistency make, who does not join the Roman 
Church. If the Bishop of Rome has jurisdic- 
tion and authority here, why do we not acknowl- 
edge it, and submit to him ? To say then the 
above words, is nothing more or less than to say, 
"I am not a Roman Catholic;" and whatever 
reasons there are against saying them, are so far 
reasons against remaining in the English Church. 
They are a mere enunciation of the principle of 
Anglicanism. 

Anglicans maintain that the supremacy of the 



THE BISHOP OF ROME. 125 

Pope is not directly from revelation, but an event 
in Providence. All things may be undone by the 
agents and causes by which they are done. What 
revelation gives, revelation takes away; what 
Providence gives, Providence takes away. God 
ordained by miracle, He reversed by miracle, the 
Jewish election; He promoted in the way of 
Providence, and He cast down by the same way, 
the Roman Empire. " The powers that be, are 
ordained of God," wMle they be, and have a claim 
on our obedience. When they cease to be, they 
cease to have a claim. They cease to be, when 
God removes them. He may be considered to re- 
move them when He undoes what He had done. 
The Jewish election did not cease to be, when the 
Jews went into captivity : this was an event in 
Providence; and what miracle had ordained, it 
was miracle that annulled. But the Roman power 
ceased to be when the barbarians overthrew it ; 
for it rose by the sword, and it therefore perished 
by the sword. The Gospel Ministry began in 
Cheist and His Apostles : and what they began, 
they only can end. The Papacy began in the 
exertions and passions of man : and what man 
can make, man can destroy. Its jurisdiction, 
while it lasted, was " ordained of God ;" when it 
ceased to be, it ceased to claim our obedience; 
and it ceased to be at the Reformation. The Re- 
formers who could not destroy a Ministry, which 



126 THE BISHOP OF ROME. 

the Apostles began, could destroy a Dominion 
which the Popes founded. 

Perhaps the following passage will throw addi- 
tional light upon this point : — 

" The Anglican view of the Church has ever 
been this: that its portions need not otherwise 
have been united together for their essential com- 
pleteness, than as being descended from one origi- 
nal. They are like a number of colonies sent out 
from a mother-country. . . Each Church is inde- 
pendent of all the rest, and is to act on the princi- 
ple of what may be called Episcopal independence, 
except, indeed, so far as the civil power unites any 
number of them together. . . Each diocese is a 
perfect independent Church, sufficient for itself; 
and the communion of Christians one with an- 
other, and the unity of them altogether, lie, not 
in a mutual understanding, intercourse, and com- 
bination, not in what they do in common, but in 
what they are and have in common : in their pos- 
session of the Succession, their Episcopal form, 
their Apostolic faith, and the use of the Sacra- 
ments. . . Mutual intercourse is but an accident 
of the Church, not of its essence. . . Intercommu- 
nion is a duty, as other duties, but is not the 
tenure or instrument of the communion between 
the unseen world and this ; and much more the 
confederacy of sees and churches, the metro- 
politan, patriarchal, and papal systems, are matters 



THE BISHOP OF EOME. 127 

of expedience or of natural duty from long custom, 
or of propriety from gratitude and reverence, or 
of necessity from voluntary oaths and engagements, 
or of ecclesiastical force from the canons of Councils, 
but not necessary in order to the conveyance of 
grace, or for fulfilment of the ceremonial law, as 
it may he called, of unity. Bishop is superior to 
bishop only in rank, not in real power ; and the 
Bishop of Rome, the head of the Catholic world, 
is not the centre of unity, except as having a pri- 
macy of order. Accordingly, even granting, for 
argument's sake, that the English Church A'iolated 
a duty in the 16th century, in releasing itself from 
the Roman supremacy, still it did not thereby 
commit that special sin, which cuts off' from it the 
fountains of grace, and is called schism. It was 
essentially complete without Rome, and naturally 
independent of it ; it had, in the course of years, 
wliether by usurpation or not, come under the 
supremacy of Rome ; and now, whether by rebellion 
or not, it is free from it : and as it did not enter 
into the Church invisible by joining Rome, so it 
was not cast out of it by breaking from Rome. 
These were accidents in its history, involving, in- 
deed, sin in individuals, but not affecting the 
Cliurch as a Churcli, « 

" Accordingly, the Oath of Supremacy declares, 
' that no foreign prelate hath, or ought to have, 
any jurisdiction, power, pre-eminence, or authority 



128 THE BISHOP OF ROME. 

witliin this realm.' In otlier words, there is noth- 
ing in the Apostolic system which gives an au- 
thority to the Pope over the Church, such as it 
does not give to a Bishop. It is altogether an 
ecclesiastical arrangement ; not a point de fide, 
but of expedience, custom, or piety, which cannot 
be claimed as if the Pope ought to have it, any 
more than, on the other hand, the King could of 
Divine right claim the supremacy ; the claim of 
both one and the other resting, not on duty or 
revelation, but on specific engagement. TVe find 
ourselves, as a Church, under the King now, and 
we obey him ; we were under the Pope formerly, 
and we obeyed him. ' Ought' does not, in any 
degree, come into the question." 



CONCLUSION. 129 



Conclusion. 

One remark may be made in conclusion. It 
may be objected tbat the tenor of the above 
explanations is anti-Protestant, whereas it is 
notorious that the Articles were drawn up by 
Protestants, and intended for the establishment 
of Protestantism ; accordingly, that it is an evasion 
of their meaning to give them any other than a 
Protestant drift, possible as it may be to do so 
grammatically, or in each separate part. 

But the answer is simple : — 

1. In the first place, it is a duty which we 
owe both to the Catholic Church and to our own, 
to take our reformed confessions in the most Catho- 
lic sense they will admit ; we have no duties to- 
ward their framers. [ISTor do we receive the Arti- 
cles from their original framers, but from several 
successive convocations after their time ; in the 
last instance, from that of 1662.} 

2. In giving the Articles a Catholic interpreta- 
tion, we bring them into harmony with the Book 
of Common Prayer, an object of the most serious 
moment in those who have given their assent to 
both formularies. 

3. "Whatever be the authority of the [Declara- 
tion] prefixed to the Articles, so far as it has any 

6* 



ii 



130 CONCLUSION. 

weight at uU, it sanctions tlie mode of inter- 
preting them above given. For its enjoining the 
" literal and grammatical sense," relieves us from 
the necessity of making the known opinions of 
their framers, a comment upon their text ; and its 
forbidding any person to " affix any new sense to 
any Article," was promulgated at a time when 
the leading men of our Church were especially 
noted for those Catholic views which have been 
here advocated. 

4. It may be remarked, moreover, that such an 
interpretation is in accordance with the well- 
nown general leaning o f Melanflh tlion, from 
whose writings our Articles are principally drawn, 
and whose Catholic tendencies gained for him that 
same reproach of popery, which has ever been so 
freely bestowed upon members of our own reformed 
Church. 



" Melanchtlioii was of opinion," says Mosheim, "that, for the 
sake of peace and concord, many things might be given up and 
tolerated in the Church of Rome, which Luther considered could 
by no means be endured. . . In the class of matters indifferent, 
this great man and his associates placed many things which had 
appeared of the highest importance to Luther, and could not of 
consequence be considered as indifferent by his true disciples. 
For ho regarded as such, the doctrine of justification by faitii 
alone, the necessity of good works to eternal salvation; the 
number of the sacraments ; the jurisdiction claimed by the Pope 
isnd the Bishops ; extreme unction ; the observation of certain 
religious festivals, and several superstitious rites and ceremonies." 
—Cent. XVL, § 3, part 2, 27, 28. 



CONCLUSION. 131 

5. Further : the Articles are evidently framed 
on the principle of leaving open large questions, 
on which the controversy hinges. They state 
broadly extreme truths, and are silent about their 
adjustment. For instance, they say that all neces- 
sary faith must be proved from Scripture, but do 
not say who is to prove it. They say that the 
Church has authority in controversies, they do not 
say what authority. They say that it may enforce 
nothing beyond Scripture, but do not say where 
the remedy lies when it does. They say that 
works hefore grace and justification are worth- 
less and worse, and that works after grace and 
justification are acceptable, but they do not speak 
at all of works with God's aid, hefore justification. 
They say that men are lawfully called and sent to 
minister and preacli, who are chosen and called 
by men who have public authority given them in 
the congregation to call and send ; but they do 
not add hy whom the authority is to be given. 
They say that councils called hy jprinces may err ; 
they do not determine whether councils called in 
the name of Cheist will err. 

[6. The variety of doctrinal views contained in 
the Homilies, as above sho-uTi, views which cannot 
be brought under Protestantism itself, in its greatest 
comprehension of opinions, is an additional proof, 
considering the connection of the xlrticles with 
the Homilies, that the Articles are not framed on 



133 CONCLUSION. 

tlie principle of excluding those who prefer the 
theology of the early ages to that of the Reforma- 
tion ; or rather let it be considered whether, con- 
sidering both Homilies and Articles appeal to the 
Fathers and Catholic antiquity, in interpreting 
them by these, we are not going to the very au- 
thority to which they profess to submit them- 
selves.] 

7. Lastly, their framers constructed them in 
such a way as best to comprehend those who did 
not go so far in Protestantism as themselves. 
Anglo-Catholics then are but the successors and 
representatives of those moderate reformers ; and 
their case has been directly anticipated in the 
wording of the Articles. It follows that they are 
not perverting, they are using them, for an express 
purpose for which among others their authors 
framed them. The interpretation they take was 
intended to be admissible ; though not that which 
their authors took themselves. Had it not been 
provided for, possibly the Articles never would 
have been accepted by our Church at all. If, 
then, their framers have gained their side of the 
compact in effecting the reception of the Articles, 
let Catholics have theirs too in retaining their 
own Catholic interpretation of them. 

An illustration of this occurs in the history of 
the 28th Article. In the beginuino: of Elizabeth's 
reign a paragraph formed part of it, much like 



CONCLUSION. 133 

that which is now appended to the Communion 
Service, but in which the Real Presence v7QS,denicd 
in words. It was adopted by the clergy at the first 
convocation, but not published. Burnet observes 
on it thus : — 

" When these Articles were at first prepared by the convocation 
in Queen Elizabeth's reign, this paragraph was made a part of 
them ; for the original subscription by both houses of convocation, 
yet extant, shows this. But the design of the government was at 
that time much turned to the draioing over the body of the nation to 
the Reformation, in whom the old leaven had gone deep ; and no 
part of it deeper than the belief of the corporeal presence of Christ 
in the Sacrament ; therefore it was thought not expedient to offend 
them by so particular a definition in this matter ; in which the 
very word Real Presence was rejected. It might, perhaps, be also 
suggested, that here a definition was made that went too much 
■■ upon the principles of natural philosophy ; which how true soever, 
they might not bo the proper subject of an article of religion. 
Therefore it was thought fit to suppress this paragraph ; though 
it was a part of the Article that was subscribed, yet it was not 
published, but tlio paragraph that follows, ' The Body of Christ,' 
&c., was put in its stead, and was received and published by the 
next convocation ; which upon the matter was a full explanation 
of the way of Christ's presence in this Sacrament ; that ' He is 
present in a heavenly and spiritual manner, and that faith is the 
mean by wliich He is received.' This seemed to be more theo- 
logical ; and it does indeed amount to the same thing. But 
howsoever we see what was the sense of the first convocation in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign ; it differed iu nothing from that in King 
' Edward's time : and therefore though this paragraph is now no 
part of our Articles, yet we are certain that the clergy at that 
time did not at all doubt of the truth of it ; we are sure it was 
their opiuion ; since they subscribed it, though thsy did not think 
fit to pubUsh it at first ; and though it was afterwards changed 
for another, that wag the same in lense." 



134 CONCLUSIOIS'. 

"WTiat has lately taken place in the political 
world will afford an illustration in point. A 
French minister, desirous of war, nevertheless, as a 
matter of policy, draws up his state papers in such ' 
moderate language, that his successor, who is for 
peace, can act up to them, without compromising 
his own principles. The world, observing this, has 
considered it a circumstance for congratulation ; as 
if the former minister, who acted a double part, had 
been caught in his own snare. It is neither de- 
corous, nor necessary, nor altogether fair, to urge 
the parallel rigidly ; but it will explain what is 
here meant to convey. The Protestant Confession 
was drawn up with the purpose of including 
Catholics; and Catholics now will not be ex- 
cluded. "What was an economy in the reformers, 
is a protection to us. What would have been a 
perplexity to us then, is a perplexity to Protestants 
now. We could not then have found fault with 
their words; they cannot now repudiate our 
meaning. 

[J. H. N.] 

OXFOHD. 

The Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul. 
1841. 



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